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February 17 2012 6 17 /02 /February /2012 07:03

 

Introduction

Extracting real world relationships from requirement

Requirement 1 (The IS A relationship)

Requirement 2 (The Using relationship: - Association)

Requirement 3 (The Using relationship with Parent: - Aggregation)

Requirement 4 and 5 (The Deathrelationship: - Composition)

Putting things together

The source code

Summarizing

Video on Association, Aggregation and Composition


Introduction

In this article we will try to understand 3 important concepts association, aggregation and composition.

We will also try to understand in what kind of scenarios do we need them. These 3 concepts have really confused lots of developers and in this article my attempt would be to present the concepts in a simplified manner with some real world examples.

 

Extracting real world relationships from requirement

The whole point of OOP is that your code replicates the real world object, thus making your code readable and maintainable. The time we say real world, real world have relationships. Let’s consider the simple requirement listed below:-

  1. Manager is anemployee of XYZ limited corporation.
  2. Manager uses a swipe card to enter XYZ premises.
  3. Manager has workers who work under him.
  4. Manager has the responsibility of ensuring that the project is successful.
  5. Manager's salary will be judged based on project success.

If you flesh out the above 5 point requirement we can easily visualize 4 relationships:-

  • Inheritance
  • Aggregation
  • Association
  • Composition

Let’s understand them one by one.

 

Requirement 1 (The IS A relationship)

If you see the first requirement (Manager is an employee of XYZ limited corporation) it’s a parent child relationship or inheritance relationship. The sentence above specifies that Manager is a type of employee, in other words we will have two classes one the parent class “Employee” and the other a child class “Manager” which will inherit from “Employee” class.

Note: -The scope of this article is only limited to aggregation, association and composition. So we will not discuss inheritancein this article as its pretty straight forward and I am sure you can get1000 of articles on the net which will help you in understanding the same.


Requirement 2 (The Using relationship: - Association)

The requirement 2 is an interesting requirement (Manager uses a swipe card to enter XYZ premises). In this requirement the manager object and swipe card object use each other but they have their own object life time. In other words they can exist without each other. The most important point in this relationship is that there is no single owner.

relation1.jpg

The above diagram shows howthe “SwipeCard” class uses the “Manager” class and the “Manager” class uses the “SwipeCard” class. You can also see how we can create the object of the “Manager” class and “SwipeCard” independently and they can have their own object life time.

This relationship is called as the “Association” relationship.

 

Requirement 3 (The Using relationship with Parent: - Aggregation)

The third requirement from our list (Manager has workers who work under him) denotes the same type ofrelationship like association but with a difference that one of them is an owner. So as per the requirement the “Manager” object will own “Workers” object.

The child “Worker” objects can not belong to any other objects. For instance the “Worker” object cannot belong to the “SwipeCard” object.

But But….the “Worker” object can have his own life time which is completely disconnected from the “Manager” object. Looking from a different perspective it means that if the “Manager” object is deleted the “Worker” object does not die.

This relationship is termed as the “Aggregation” relationship.

 

relation2.jpg

Requirement 4 and 5 (The Deathrelationship: - Composition)

The last two requirements are actually logically one. If you read closely both the requirements which are as follows:-

  1. Manager has the responsibility of ensuring that the project is successful.
  2. Manager's salary will be judged based on project success.

Below is the conclusion from analyzing the above requirements:-

  1. Manager and the project objects are dependent on each other.
  2. The lifetimes of both the objects are same. In other words the project will not be successful if the manager is not good and manager will not get good increments if project has issues.

Below is how the class formation will look like. You can also see when I go to create the project object it needs the manager object.

 

relation3.jpg

 

This relationship is termed as the composition relationship. In this relationship both objects are heavily dependent on each other. In other words if goes for garbage collection the other also has to garbage collected , or putting from a different perspective the life time of the objects are same. That’s why I have put in the heading “Death” relationship.

 

Putting things together

Below is a visual representation of how the relationships have emerged from the requirements.

 

relation4.jpg

 

The source code

You can also download source code for this article

 

Summarizing

To avoid confusion hence forth in these 3 terms I have put forward a table below which will help us compare them from 3 angles owner , life time and child object.

 

 

Video on Association, Aggregation and Composition

I have also added a video in case you do not want to read this long article.

 

 

Just a note I have recorded around 500 videos, do have once a look at my videos on .NET, OOP, SQL Server, WCF, Silver light , LINQ , VSTS, Share Point, Design patterns , UML and lot more.

 

Visit to get more stuff on important Dotnet interview questions

 

Regards,

 

Also visit for more author’s other blogs on Most asked Dotnet interview questions

  Association Aggregation Composition
Owner No Owner Single owner Single Owner
Life time Have their own life time Have their own life time. Owners life time
Child object No Child objects all are independent Child objects belong to single parent. Child objects belong to single parent.

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.NET interview questions: - What is the difference between delegate and events? Can we have return type, access modifiers and shared events?

.NET interview questions: - What is Manifest? Where is the version information stored of an assembly? Is versioning applicable to private assemblies?

.NET Generics interview questions: - Explain Generics and concept of Generic Collection in .NET?

How to learn .NET: - In parent-child relationship which constructor will fire first and in which instances you will declare a constructor private?

Basics of .NET and learning tutorials on CTS and CLS


Online resource to learn .NET on Reflection and Dynamic

Online guide to learn .NET for Object initializer in C#?

QuestPond for Freshers on IL code, JIT, CLR, CTS, CLS and CAS

QuestPond: Interview Questions and Answers on AJAX and how does it help?



ASP.NET Interview Questions & Answers Article










MVC Interview Questions And Answers Article

 

(MODEL VIEW CONTROLLER)MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VIDEO: – WHAT IS WEB API HOW TO IMPLEMENT THE SAME?

 

ASP.NET MVC  4 INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS: - WHAT IS BUNDLING AND MINIFICATION IN MODEL VIEW CONTROLLER ?

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS :- IS IT POSSIBLE TO RETURN VALUES INSTEAD OF ACTIONRESULTS?

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS :- WHAT ARE THE ACTIONRESULTS AVAILABLE IN MVC?

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS:-HTML.PARTIALVSHTML.RENDERPARTIALVSHTML.RENDERPAGE IN MVC

MVC VS ASP.NET ( MVC INTERVIEW QUESTION WITH ANSWERS )?

 

HOW CAN WE DETECT THAT A MVC CONTROLLER IS CALLED BY POST OR GET ? ( ASP.NET MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS)

 

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT WAYS BY WHICH YOU WILL GET FORM DATA IN CONTROLLER? ( MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS)

 

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRESENTER AND CONTROLLER IN MVC?(MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS)

 

LEARN MVC (MODEL VIEW CONTROLLER) STEP BY STEP IN 7 DAYS – DAY 4

 

MVC Interview questions and answers PDF

 

MVC interview questions with answers

 

ActionResult vs. View() vs. ViewResult :- MVC interview questions with answers

Explain Areas in MVC?( MVC interview questions with answers)

 

Can you explain the purpose of ViewModel in MVC?( ASP.NET MVC Interview questions with answers)

ASP.NET MVC interview questions: - What are Filters in MVC?

What are areas in MVC?( MVC Interview questions with answers)

Explain the concept of View Model in MVC? 

Exception Handling in MVC

Explain MVC application life cycle?

100 MVC Interview question PDF download released , Enjoy

How can we use two (multiple) models with a single view?(MVC Interview questions)

MVC HTML.Form vs Ajax.Form – MVC interview questions with answers

Learn Microsoft Business intelligence step by step – Day 1

Can you create TempBag just like ViewBag?( MVC Interview questions)

MVC Unit Testing Unleashed

MVC and .NET learning tutorials for components of MVC and how do you perform unit testing in MVC?

Explain MVC model binders ? ( ASP.NET MVC interview questions)

Explain the difference between layout and master pages ? (MVC Razor interview questions) 


ENTITY FRAMEWORK INTERVIEW QUESTIONS ARTICLE


Windows Workflow Foundation(WWF) interview questions with answers Article

XML Interview Questions With Answers Article


Explain XML,DTD and XSL?(XML interview questions with answers)

HTML 5 Interview questions With Answers Article

HTML 5 interview questions with answers for LocalStorage and SessionStorage

 

How is the page structure of HTML 5 different from HTML 4?( HTML 5 Interview questions with answers)

 

What is datalist in HTML 5 ( ASP.NET HTML interview questions)?

 

What are the different new form element types in HTML 5?( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

 

What is output element in HTML 5?( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

 

What is the difference between Canvas and SVG graphics?(ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

 

ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions on SVG and Canvas

ASP.NET HTML5 interview questions with answers

What are web workers and why do we need them ?( ASP.NET HTML interview questions with answers)

 

Why do we need HTML 5 server-sent events? (ASP.NET HTML interview questions)

How can we add and remove data from local storage?(ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

What is local storage concept in HTML 5? ( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

What is the difference between local storage and cookies? ( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

What is WebSQL?( ASP.Net HTML 5 interview questions)

 

What is session storage and how can you create one?( ASP.Net HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

 

What is application cache in HTML5?( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

ASP.NET HTML 5 Application cache interview questions with answers

 

Explain the term cascading in style sheet ? ( CSS Interview questions)

What is difference between DIV vs SPAN in HTML ?( ASP.Net Interview questions)

HTML 5 Canvas Interview questions: - Canvas in HTML 5.

QuestPond’s interview questions and answers on HTML 5

 

Learn HTML 5 in 3 days – Day 1

 

 

 

Dotnetspider Questions And Answers Article

 

 

What is downcasting and upcasting ? ( .NET interview questions with videos)

 

What is the difference between String vs string? ( C# interview questions) ?

 

 

JAVASCRIPT INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS ARTICLE

 


3 IMPORTANT JAVASCRIPT IMPORTANT INTERVIEW QUESTION WITH ANSWERS