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November 12 2010 6 12 /11 /November /2010 15:02



Architecture FAQ for Localization and Globalization Part 1

Get Interview tutorials and videos on .NET 3.5, 4.0, Localization,Globalization, SQL Server, CAS, Security, WCF, SharePoint, Azure, OOPS and many more on www.questpond.com

 

 

 

Introduction

When we see around, architectures mainly discuss about loose coupling , scalability , performance etc etc. Many architecture forget one of the important aspects in software is making application globalized. Depending on project some application would not really want to have multi-language based websites , but i am sure many will. So in this article we will go through a series of FAQ which will give you a quick start on making application multi-language based.

Lately i have been writing and recording videos heavily on design patterns , UML and many architectural stuff you can visit http://www.questpond.com for design pattern and UML videos.

 What is Unicode & Why was it introduced?


In order to understand the concept of Unicode we need to move little back and understand ANSI code. ASCII (ask key) stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. In ASCII format, every character is represented by one byte (i.e. 8 bits). So in short we can have 256 characters (2^8). Before UNICODE came in to picture programmers used code page to represent characters in different languages. Code page is a different interpretation of ASCII set. Code pages keep 128 characters for English and the rest 128 characters are tailored for a specific language.
Below is a pictorial representation of the same.

 


Figure 14.1:- Code page in action


There are following disadvantages of the CODE page approach:-
• Some languages like Chinese have more than 5000 characters, which is difficult to represent only with 128-character set.
• Only two languages can be supported at a one time. As said in the previous note you can use 128 for English and the rest 128 for the other language.
• The end client should have the code page.
• Code Representation change according to Operating system and Language used. That means a character can be represented in different numbers depending on operating system.
For all the above problems, UNICODE was introduced. UNICODE represents characters with 2 bytes. So if its two bytes that means 18 bits. You can now have 2^16 characters i.e. 65536 characters. That is a huge number you can include any language in the world. Further if you use surrogates you can have additional 1 million characters...Hmm that can include type of language including historian characters.
ASCII representation varied according to operating system and language. However, in UNICODE it assigns a unique letter for every character irrespective of Language or operating system, which makes programmers life much easier while developing international compatible applications.

 Does .NET support UNICODE and how do you know it supports?


Yes, .NET definitely supports UNICODE. Try to see size of (char), you will see 2 bytes. Char type data type stores only one character, which needs only 8 bits, but because .NET has to support UNICODE, it uses 16 bits to store the same.

 What is the difference between localization and globalization?


Below are the definition is which is taken from the Microsoft glossary.
Globalization: -It is the process of developing a program core whose features and code design are not solely based on a single language or locale.
Localization: - The process of adapting a program for a specific local market, which includes translating the user interface, resizing dialog boxes, customizing features (if necessary), and testing results to ensure that the program still works.
You can visualize globalization as more of architecture decisions. While localization is adapting your content to local market. Globalization phase occurs before localization phase.

 What architecture decisions you should consider while planning for international software’s?


Note: - Many programmers think its only converting the text from one language to other. It’s a very wrong assumption that just by translating strings from one language to other language the software is localized. Interviewer will definitely get disappointed by such an answer. So let’s try to visualize what are the design considerations to be taken when we design software globally.


• Avoid hard coding of strings in the project. Any display right from labels to error messages read it from a resource file.
• Length of the string is also of prime importance. It’s a noted fact that when we translate English language in to other language the words increase by minimum 30 to 40 %. For instance you can see from the below figure how the Hindi text has increased as compared to English text.


Figure 14.2: - Text length increase


So all your labels, message boxes should design in such a way that the text size mismatched gets adjusted. Do not crowd all your fields on one screen you will definitely end with the text length issue. Leave some room for expansion.
• Decimal separator varies from locale to locale. For instance 25, 12.80 in the United States are 25.12,80 in Greece or Germany. Yes, you guessed right the decimal separator in Europe is a "," (Comma).
• Calendar changes from country to country. Definitely, Gregorian calendar is the most used. However, there are some other calendars like Hebrew, Islamic, Chinese etc. All these calendars have huge differences. For instance, Nepal follows Nepali Calendar, which is 56.7 years ahead of Gregorian calendar. So according to cultural settings user can expect the dates accordingly.
• Sort order is affected by language. You can see from the figure below Hindi and English languages have different sorting order.


Figure 14.3: - Different sorting order according to locale


• Time varies from locale to locale. For instance, an 8 PM in India is 20:00 in Europe. In Europe, there is not concept of AM and PM.
• If you are using built-in fonts, use the resource file to bundle the same. You can load the fonts from the resource file rather than telling the user explicitly to install the fonts in his PC.
• Keyboards layout changes according locale and region. So be careful while designing the short cut keys. The function keys are mostly present in all key boards. Probably you can consider the function keys for short cut keys. Below is a sample Hindi key board. If you define CTRL + V as a short cut for paste functionality it can create confusion for Hindi users on the below key board.


Figure 14.4: - Localized Hindi keyboard


Courtesy: - Image taken from http://www-306.ibm.com/


So you can see from the above points that making software adapt to global culture is not only related to string translation. It is much beyond that.

 How do we get the current culture of the environment in windows and ASP.NET?


“CultureInfo.CurrentCulture” displays the current culture of the environment. For instance if you are running Hindi it will display “hi-IN”. Please note one thing in mind “Current Culture” will only give you the culture on which your application is running. Therefore, if it is a windows application this will work fine. However, in ASP.NET 2.0 we need to know what culture the end user has.
For a real international website, different users can log in with different culture. For instance, you can see from the given figure below different users are logging in with different regional settings. Client browser sends the information in the request headers to the server. For instance, a Korean user will send “KO” in the request headers to server. We can get the value using the” Request.UserLanguages”.

Figure 14.5: - Different users logging in from different countries


Regional settings are defined on the user’s browser as shown below. Click on Tools – Internet options – Languages. You can then add languages in the language preference box. Using "Move up" and "Move down”, you can define the priority of the languages. In the below figure we have four languages defined with “Hindi” language set at the top priority. ” Request.UserLanguages” returns an array of string with the sorted order defined in your language preference tab of the browser.


Figure 14.6: - Setting language preferences in browser


Below is the code snippet, which shows how we can display the user languages. The first figure is the code snippet, which shows how to use “Request.UserLanguages”. The second figure shows the output for the same.


Figure 14.7: - Request.UserLanguages in action

 



Figure 14.8: - Output from Request.UserLanguages


One of the things to be noted is “q” value. “q” stands for quality factor. In the above figure, the quality factor means the following:-
"I prefer Hindi, but will accept English US (with 80% comprehension) or Greek (with 50% comprehension) or French (with 30 % comprehension)."
Just for Non-English speakers meaning of Comprehension.
It is the process of understanding and constructing meaning from a piece of text.
The comprehension is from the perspective of the end user. It says the end browser user will understand with this much comprehension for that language. For instance in the above example the end browser under stands English comprehension of 80 %.
Note: - You can find the sample to display the user languages in “Globalization” folder. Run “DisplayAllLanguageSettings.aspx” and see the output. Just to mention the source is coded in VS.NET 2005 so if you try to open it using VS.NET 2003 you can get errors.

 Which are the important namespaces during localization and globalization?


There are two most important namespaces:-
• ‘System.Globalization’ – This namespace contains classes that define culture-related information, including the language, the country/region, the calendars in use, the format patterns for dates, currency and numbers, and the sort order for strings.
• ‘System.Resources’ – This namespace provides classes and interfaces that allow developers to create, store, and manage various culture-specific resources used in an application. With this namespace, you can read a resource file and display it accordingly to the user’s culture.

 What are resource files and how do we generate resource files?


Resource files are files, which contain program resources. Many programmers think resource files for only storing strings. However, you can also store bitmaps, icons, fonts, wav files in to resource files.
In order to generate resource file you need click on tools – generate local resource as shown in the figure below. Do not forget to keep page in designer view or else you will not see the option. Once you generate the resource file you will see the resx file generated in the solution explorer.

 

 

Figure 14.9: - Generating resource files using IDE
 

If you see the resource file it will basically have a key and the value for the key.

 



Figure 14.10: - Resource file in action


If you see the above figure, the key is basically the object name. You can see the Label1 has some value stored in the resource file.

 Can resource file be in any other format other than resx extensions?


Yes, they can be in .txt format in name and value pairs. For instance below is a simple .txt file with values.
Lbluserid = User Id
LblPassword = Password
CmdSubmitPassword = Submit

 How is resource files actually used in project?


 How can we use Culture Auto in project?


Note: - Hmmm we have talked so much theoretically its time to see something practically in action. Let’s make small project to understand how we can implement the same. In Globalization folder you can run the “LoginScreen.aspx” to see it practically. Below goes the explanation.


We will make a simple login screen, which we will try to use for English as well as Greek. The login screen will display English settings when an English user logs in and Greek Settingswhen a Greek user logs in. So below are the steps to start with.





Figure 14.11: - Culture Auto in action


In the above figure, you can see the login page. You can find the same in CD as named “LoginScreen.aspx”. It is a simple page with two labels and two text boxes. Now the labels values i.e. “User ID” and “Password” should be changed according to regional settings set on the browser. So below are the steps for the same:-
• Make two resource files as shown below one for Greece and other for English. There are three values defined for “Userid”, “Password” and the main title of the page. The other important thing to note is the naming convention of the files. You need to tag the naming convention with the language code. You can see from the below figure the resource files naming convention is divided in two three parts File name, Language code and resource file extension. In this sample, we will demonstrate for English and Greek language so we tagged the file with “el” language code.

 

Figure 14.12: - Resource file naming conventions


Below are the two resource files defined?


Figure 14.13: - Greek and English resource files


• Once you have defined your resource files we need to define two attributes “UICulture=Auto” and “Culture=Auto”. See the above figure “Culture Auto in Action”.
• Final step you also need to define resource key at the UI object level. You can see a sample of the same in figure “Culture Auto in Action”.


Figure 14.14: - Login screen according to settings


Compile the project, run, and see the output after changing regional settings for both languages. You should see different outputs as shown in the above figure. With out a single line of code everything works…. That is the magic of “UICulture=Auto” attribute.

Note: - You can the get the above source code in “Globalization” folder. See for “LoginScreen.aspx” page.


Note: - In the further section we will be answering three questions in one go.
 

 

References

 

Hanselman has given list of containers useful link to visit.

http://www.hanselman.com/blog/ListOfNETDependencyInjectionContainersIOC.aspx


http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/cc163739.aspx

http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc707905.aspx

http://www.devx.com/Java/Article/27583/0/page/2

Other Interview question PDF's

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What is the difference between .Net,C#, Asp.net, Asp.net Web Forms and Asp.net MVC and MVC?( C# and ASP.NET Interview questions)

ADO.NET interview questions: - Explain in detail the fundamental of connection pooling?

.NET interview questions: – Can you explain generics in .NET?

What are Properties and methods ? ( .NET OOP Interview questions with answers)

What’s the first step you take for implementing any of Design Pattern?( .NET  Design pattern interview questions with answers)

.NET interview questions: - What are different types of JIT?

ADO.NET Interview Question: - What are the major differences between classic ADO and ADO.NET?

.NET interview questions: – What is the difference between Reflection and Dynamic?

What is the Use of interfaces?( .NET Interview questions with answers)

.NET interview questions: - What role did you play in your project and company?

Visual studio 2012 Fakes

.NET interview questions: - So how can we clean unmanaged objects and also maintain performance?

ADO.NET Interview Questions: - What are basic methods of Data adapter?

.NET interview questions: - What are system level exceptions and application level exceptions?

.NET interview questions: - What is UML and which are the important diagrams?

.NET interview questions: - What is time out support in regex (regular expression)?

.NET interview questions: - How can we improve performance of .NET?

.NET interview questions: - Can you explain the concept of “Short Circuiting”?

.NET interview questions: - Can you explain Forms authentication in detail?

What is the difference between VAR and Dynamic keyword? ( .NET Interview questions with answers)

.NET interview questions: - What are similarities and difference between Class and structure?

Can you compare String.IsNullOrEmpty vs String.IsNullOrWhiteSpace ? ( .Net Interview questions with answers)

.NET interview questions: - Distinguish between Reflection and Dynamic?

.NET interview questions: - In which scenarios we can use serialization and when to use what binary serialization or XML serialization?

.NET interview questions: - Are there any readymade objects in .NET by which we can implement Lazy loading?

.NET interview questions: - What are different access modifiers?

ADO.NET interview questions: - Explain in detail the fundamental of connection pooling how to enable and disable connection pooling?

ADO.NET interview questions: - What is the namespace in which .NET has the data functionality class?

ADO.NET interview questions: - What are the different components in ADO.NET?

ADO.NET interview questions: - Show difference between “Optimistic” and “Pessimistic” locking and how many ways are there to implement optimistic locking in ADO.NET?

.NET interview questions: - Does code contract only do dynamic checks?

ADO.NET interview questions: - How can we fire a simple SQL Statement using ADO.NET?

.NET interview questions: - What basic steps are needed to display a simple report in crystal?

ADO.NET interview questions: - What are basic methods of Data adapter and mention the use of data adapter?

.NET interview questions: - What is UML? How many types of diagrams are there in UML?

.Net Interview Questions - What is MVC, MVP and MVVM pattern?

.NET interview questions: - How can you define a property read only for external world and writable in the same assembly?

Explain the implicit and explicit conversion of data types with examples?( .NET interview questions on data type)

.NET interview questions: - What is Reflection its implementation and practical uses?

What is downcasting and upcasting? (.NET interview questions with answers)

.NET interview questions: - How to decide on the design consideration to take a Data grid, data list or repeater?

.NET interview questions: - If we want to update interface with new methods, what is the best practice?

.NET interview questions: - How does selection sort algorithm works?

XML(.NET) interview questions: - What is XML?

.NET Interview questions: - If a validation is very complex what will you do?

.NET interview questions: - How can we stop the class from further inheriting?

XML (.NET) Interview questions :- Explain simple Walk through of XmlReader.

.NET interview questions : - How can we improve performance of .NET and show the difference between .NET 1.X, 2.0, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0?

How to convert string to ENUM value ?( .NET interview questions with answers)

.NET architecture interview questions series: - What is mean by modeling language?

.NET architecture interview questions : - What are benefits and Limitation of using Viewstate, hidden frames and Cookies?

.NET interview questions: - What is GAC (Global Assembly Cache)?

.NET interview questions: - Explain Nuget?

.NET Testing interview questions: - What is the difference between Unit testing, Assembly testing and Regression testing?


.NET interview questions: - What is Code Access Security (CAS) and how does it work? Is CAS supported in .NET 4.0?


.NET interview questions: - What are the advantages /disadvantages of lazy loading?


.NET interview questions: - What is the use of DEBUG directive?


.NET testing interview questions: - What is Mock testing and how to implement it?


.NET interview questions: - What is the difference between DEBUG and Release?


.NET testing interview questions: - How can we UNIT test private methods using VSTS? Is it good to practice to UNIT test Private methods?


Explain 3 layer architecture ( .NET Interview questions)?


.NET interview questions : - What is a delegate and how can we create a delegate? What is a multicast delegate?


ADO.NET interview questions: - How to add/remove row is in “Data Table” object of “Dataset”? How to load multiple tables in a Dataset & adding relation between tables in a Dataset?


What is the difference between Array, ArrayList and List?( .Net Interview questions)

.NET interview questions: - How to implement DTC in .NET?
.NET interview questions: - What is an Interface and what are abstract classes

.NET interview questions: - Interface vs. abstract class

.NET interview questions: - How to implement practically Lazy loading in .NET?


.NET interview questions: - How can we handle exceptions in .NET? What if we do not catch the exception?

.NET interview questions based on Projects.


.NET interview questions: - What is shadowing? What is the difference between Shadowing and Overriding?

.NET interview questions: - All about Design Patterns in .NET


.NET interview questions: - How can we improve performance of .NET/ASP.NET/SQL Server?

.NET interview questions: - What benefits does sealed keyword provide?


.NET Architecture UML interview question


.NET interview questions: - How to maintain performance and can clean unmanaged objects?


.NET interview questions: - Explain ENUM and its benefits? What is the use of Flagsin ENUM?

.NET interview questions: - How to create a windows service using .NET?

.NET interview questions: - Explain in details about Indexer and can we have static indexer in C#?

.NET interview questions: - What is the difference between arraylist and list? Are Arraylist faster or Arrays?

.NET interview questions: - What is Native Image Generator (Ngen.exe)? Does NGEN.EXE always improve performance?

.NET OOPS interview questions: - What is OOP? What are different properties provided by Object-oriented systems?

.NET OOPS interview questions: - How abstract with only abstract method is it different from interfaces? Also mention best practice to update interface with new methods?

.NET interview questions: - What is the difference between delegate and events? Can we have return type, access modifiers and shared events?

.NET interview questions: - What is Manifest? Where is the version information stored of an assembly? Is versioning applicable to private assemblies?

.NET Generics interview questions: - Explain Generics and concept of Generic Collection in .NET?

How to learn .NET: - In parent-child relationship which constructor will fire first and in which instances you will declare a constructor private?

Basics of .NET and learning tutorials on CTS and CLS


Online resource to learn .NET on Reflection and Dynamic

Online guide to learn .NET for Object initializer in C#?

QuestPond for Freshers on IL code, JIT, CLR, CTS, CLS and CAS

QuestPond: Interview Questions and Answers on AJAX and how does it help?



ASP.NET Interview Questions & Answers Article










MVC Interview Questions And Answers Article

 

(MODEL VIEW CONTROLLER)MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VIDEO: – WHAT IS WEB API HOW TO IMPLEMENT THE SAME?

 

ASP.NET MVC  4 INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS: - WHAT IS BUNDLING AND MINIFICATION IN MODEL VIEW CONTROLLER ?

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS :- IS IT POSSIBLE TO RETURN VALUES INSTEAD OF ACTIONRESULTS?

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS :- WHAT ARE THE ACTIONRESULTS AVAILABLE IN MVC?

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS:-HTML.PARTIALVSHTML.RENDERPARTIALVSHTML.RENDERPAGE IN MVC

MVC VS ASP.NET ( MVC INTERVIEW QUESTION WITH ANSWERS )?

 

HOW CAN WE DETECT THAT A MVC CONTROLLER IS CALLED BY POST OR GET ? ( ASP.NET MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS)

 

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT WAYS BY WHICH YOU WILL GET FORM DATA IN CONTROLLER? ( MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS)

 

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRESENTER AND CONTROLLER IN MVC?(MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS)

 

LEARN MVC (MODEL VIEW CONTROLLER) STEP BY STEP IN 7 DAYS – DAY 4

 

MVC Interview questions and answers PDF

 

MVC interview questions with answers

 

ActionResult vs. View() vs. ViewResult :- MVC interview questions with answers

Explain Areas in MVC?( MVC interview questions with answers)

 

Can you explain the purpose of ViewModel in MVC?( ASP.NET MVC Interview questions with answers)

ASP.NET MVC interview questions: - What are Filters in MVC?

What are areas in MVC?( MVC Interview questions with answers)

Explain the concept of View Model in MVC? 

Exception Handling in MVC

Explain MVC application life cycle?

100 MVC Interview question PDF download released , Enjoy

How can we use two (multiple) models with a single view?(MVC Interview questions)

MVC HTML.Form vs Ajax.Form – MVC interview questions with answers

Learn Microsoft Business intelligence step by step – Day 1

Can you create TempBag just like ViewBag?( MVC Interview questions)

MVC Unit Testing Unleashed

MVC and .NET learning tutorials for components of MVC and how do you perform unit testing in MVC?

Explain MVC model binders ? ( ASP.NET MVC interview questions)

Explain the difference between layout and master pages ? (MVC Razor interview questions) 


ENTITY FRAMEWORK INTERVIEW QUESTIONS ARTICLE


Windows Workflow Foundation(WWF) interview questions with answers Article

XML Interview Questions With Answers Article


Explain XML,DTD and XSL?(XML interview questions with answers)

HTML 5 Interview questions With Answers Article

HTML 5 interview questions with answers for LocalStorage and SessionStorage

 

How is the page structure of HTML 5 different from HTML 4?( HTML 5 Interview questions with answers)

 

What is datalist in HTML 5 ( ASP.NET HTML interview questions)?

 

What are the different new form element types in HTML 5?( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

 

What is output element in HTML 5?( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

 

What is the difference between Canvas and SVG graphics?(ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

 

ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions on SVG and Canvas

ASP.NET HTML5 interview questions with answers

What are web workers and why do we need them ?( ASP.NET HTML interview questions with answers)

 

Why do we need HTML 5 server-sent events? (ASP.NET HTML interview questions)

How can we add and remove data from local storage?(ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

What is local storage concept in HTML 5? ( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

What is the difference between local storage and cookies? ( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

What is WebSQL?( ASP.Net HTML 5 interview questions)

 

What is session storage and how can you create one?( ASP.Net HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

 

What is application cache in HTML5?( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

ASP.NET HTML 5 Application cache interview questions with answers

 

Explain the term cascading in style sheet ? ( CSS Interview questions)

What is difference between DIV vs SPAN in HTML ?( ASP.Net Interview questions)

HTML 5 Canvas Interview questions: - Canvas in HTML 5.

QuestPond’s interview questions and answers on HTML 5

 

Learn HTML 5 in 3 days – Day 1

 

 

 

Dotnetspider Questions And Answers Article

 

 

What is downcasting and upcasting ? ( .NET interview questions with videos)

 

What is the difference between String vs string? ( C# interview questions) ?

 

 

JAVASCRIPT INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS ARTICLE

 


3 IMPORTANT JAVASCRIPT IMPORTANT INTERVIEW QUESTION WITH ANSWERS