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December 11 2010 7 11 /12 /December /2010 15:52

Model View Presenter

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Introduction and Goal

Pre-requisite

The simple stock project

Analyzing the project

So what’s the problem?

MVP (Model View Presenter) the solution

Implementing MVP in the stock project

The View

The simplest thing in the world the model

The complete flow for the stock project

Reusing the presenter in windows

The difference

Difference between MVC and MVP

Download the code



Introduction and Goal

In this article we will understand MVP, execute a sample project with MVP, implement the same using windows UI and then finally we will discuss about the differences between MVP and MVC.

For past some days I have been writing and recording videos in design patterns, UML , FPA , Enterprise blocks and lot you can watch the videos at http://www.questpond.com 

You can download my 400 .NET FAQ EBook from http://www.questpond.com/SampleDotNetInterviewQuestionBook.zip
 

Pre-requisite

This article assumes you know MVC in case not you can read about the same at http://www.codeproject.com/KB/aspnet/3Musketeers.aspx

The simple stock project


The best ways to understand any architectural concept is by taking a small practical sample and then apply fundamentals on the same. So let’s first discuss a simple scenario and then let’s think how MVP fits in to the same. Below is a pictorial representation of a simple stock project. We can increase the stock value and decrease the stock value. Depending on the stock can have three status overstocked, under stocked or optimally stocked.



We have three scenarios depending on which the UI will change color.



Stock value Color
Value is in between 1 and 5 ( Optimally stocked) Green color
Value is above 5 ( Over Stock)  Blue color
Value is less than zero ( Under stocked) Red color


Analyzing the project


What we will do is define the problem logic in two parts:-

• Presentation logic
• Business logic



Business logic will be handled by business object Presentation Logic will ne handled in the ASPX or windows form
   
Receive the events from the presentation and maintain the stock value accordingly. In short increment and decrement the stock value. Trigger the events increment stock and decrement stock. The events will be triggered when the user clicks the increase stock button or the decrement stock button.
Depending on the value of the stock determine the three states under stocked, overstocked or optimally stocked. Depending the state of the stock change the visual colors :-
• Under stocked change to RED.
• Over stocked change to blue.• Optimally stocked change to green
 



The other responsibilities look fine let’s concentrate on the last responsibility which we have marked in red color where the UI needs to change colors depending on the stock value. This kind of logic in presentation is termed as presentation logic.


So what’s the problem?


If you look from a generic perspective the work responsibilities allocated to the business object and the user interface look fine. There is slight concern when we look at the presentation logic.



We have three big problems:-



Reuse of presentation logic


If we want to reuse the presentation logic in some other UI type like windows. I mean to say we have implemented this logic in ASP.NET web pages and we want to reuse the same in windows. As we have the presentation logic is tied up in the UI code it will be difficult to decouple the same from the UI. We also would like to use the same presentation logic with other pages of same types.



Presentation is tied up with the business object

The presentation is tied up with the business object. It’s doing lot of work checking the stock status using the business object and changing the UI colors accordingly.


UI testing


If we want to test the user interfaces it becomes difficult as the UI is highly coupled with the UI. It becomes difficult to test these parts as different pieces.


MVP (Model View Presenter) the solution


So let’s take the above three problems and see how we can solve it. MVP will help us solve the above three problems.
Problem 1:- Reuse of presentation logic

If we want to reuse the presentation logic irrespective of the UI type we need to move this logic to some separate class. MVP does the same thing. It introduces something called as the presenter in which the presentation logic is centralized.

 Note: - In this scenario the presentation logic is simple. In real projects you will find the presentation logic complex and there is lot of bandwidth of reuse in other user interfaces. 

Problem 2:- Presentation is tied up with the business object
To decouple the presentation from the business object we introduce an interface for every UI. The presenter always talks through the interface and the concrete UI i.e. the web page communicates also through the view interface. In this way the model is never in touch with the concrete UI i.e. the ASPX or windows interface. All user interface should implement this interface so that the presenter can communicate with the UI in a decoupled manner.






Problem 3 will get solved if we solve the first two problems.


Implementing MVP in the stock project


The View Interface and presenter of the stock project


We will first visualize how the UI will look like. There will be two buttons one which increments the stock value and the other which decrements the stock value. The stock value is displayed on the stock text box and the color is set according to the value of the stock.






All events are first sent to the presenter. So all the events needs to connect to some methods on the presenter. All data needed by the UI i.e. in this instance we need the stock value and the color should be defined in the interface so that presenter can communicate using the same.

So below is the interface for the ASPX page. We need the stock value so we have defined a method called as ‘setStockValue’ and we also need the color so we have defined a method called as ‘setColor’.

 public interface StockView { void setStockValue(int intStockValue); void setColor(System.Drawing.Color objColor); } 

The presenter class will aggregate the view class. We have defined an ‘Add’ method which takes the view object. This view will set when the ASP.NET page starts.

 public class clsPresenter { StockView iObjStockView; public void add(StockView ObjStockView) { iObjStockView = ObjStockView; } ..... ..... ..... } 

When the user presses the increase stock button it will call the ‘increasestock’ method of ‘clsPresenter’ and when the decrease stock button is called it will call the ‘decreasestock’ method of the ‘clsPresenter’ class. Once it increments or decrements the value it passes the value to the UI through the interface.

 public void increaseStock() { Stock.IncrementStock(); iObjStockView.setStockValue(Stock.intStockValue); ChangeColor(); } public void decreaseStock() { Stock.DecrementStock(); iObjStockView.setStockValue(Stock.intStockValue); ChangeColor(); } 

We had also talked about moving the presentation logic in the presenter. So we have defined the ‘ChangeColor’ method which takes the status from the ‘Stock’ object and communicates through the view to the ASPX page.

 public void ChangeColor() { if(Stock.getStatus()==-1) { iObjStockView.setColor(Color.Red); } else if (Stock.getStatus() == 1) { iObjStockView.setColor(Color.Blue); } else { iObjStockView.setColor(Color.Green); }} 


The View


Now let’s understand how the UI will look like. The UI either it’s an ASPX or windows should inherit from the stock view interface which we have previously explained. In the page load we have passed the reference of this page object to the presenter. This is necessary so that the presenter can call back and update data which he has received from the model.

 public partial class DisplayStock : System.Web.UI.Page,StockView { private clsPresenter objPresenter = new clsPresenter(); protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e) { objPresenter.add(this); } ….. ….. ….. }} 

As we have inherited from an interface we also need to implement the method. So we have implemented the ‘setStockValue’ and the ‘setColor’ method. Note that these methods will be called by the presenter. In both the buttons we have called the ‘increaseStock’ and ‘DecreaseStock’ method of the presenter.

 public partial class DisplayStock : System.Web.UI.Page,StockView { private clsPresenter objPresenter = new clsPresenter(); protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e) { objPresenter.add(this); } public void setStockValue(int intStockValue) { txtStockValue.Text = intStockValue.ToString(); } public void setColor(System.Drawing.Color objColor) { txtStockValue.BackColor = objColor; } protected void btnIncreaseStock_Click(object sender, EventArgs e) { objPresenter.increaseStock(); } protected void btnDecreaseStock_Click(object sender, EventArgs e) { objPresenter.decreaseStock(); }} 


The simplest thing in the world the model


The model is pretty simple. It just increments and decrements the stock value through the two methods ‘IncrementStock’ and ‘DecrementStock’. It also has a ‘getStatus’ function which tells what is the stock level type i.e. over stocked, under stocked or optimally stocked. For simplicity we have defined the stock value as a static object.

 public class Stock { public static int intStockValue; public static void IncrementStock() { intStockValue++; } public static void DecrementStock() { intStockValue--; } public static int getStatus() { // if less than zero then -1 // if more than 5 then 1 // if in between 0 if (intStockValue > 5) { return 1; } else if (intStockValue < 0) { return -1; } else { return 0; } }} 


The complete flow for the stock project

Below is a complete flow of the stock project from MVP perspective. The UI first hits the presenter. So all the events emitted from the UI will first route to the presenter. Presenter will use the model and then communicate back through the interface view. This interface view is the same interface by which your UI will inherit.




We have solved all the three problems with all the actions passing through the presenter the ASPX / Windows is completely decouple from the model. The presenter centralized the presentation logic and communicates through the interface. As the presentation logic is in a call we can reuse the logic.

As all the commands are passing through the presenter the UI is decoupled from the model. Now that we have all the components decoupled we can test the UI component separately using the presenter.


Reusing the presenter in windows


To just show how magical the presenter is. I have reused the same presentation logic in a windows application.




In the below sample we have ported the same presenter logic in a windows application.

 private void Form1_Load(object sender, EventArgs e) { objpresenter.add(this); } private void btnInCreaseStock_Click(object sender, EventArgs e) { objpresenter.increaseStock(); } private void btnDecreaseStock_Click(object sender, EventArgs e) { objpresenter.decreaseStock(); } #region StockView Members public void setStockValue(int intStockValue) { txtStockValue.Text = intStockValue.ToString(); } public void setColor(Color objColor) { txtStockValue.BackColor = objColor; } 


The difference

You can understand the difference of how consuming the model objects directly and using a presenter varies. When we use the presenter we have moved the UI presentation logic to the presenter and also decoupled the model from the view.
Below is the code in which the UI directly uses the model…Lot of work right.





With presenter all the presentation logic is now centralized




Difference between MVC and MVP





The above figure summarizes the difference between MVP and MVC. We have just summarized the figure in tabular format below.



MVP MVC
In MVP the view and the model is completely decoupled. In MVC the view and model is not completely decoupled.
In MVP presenter handles all the UI events In MVC the views handles the events
In MVP the presenter calls back to update the view via the view interface. In MVC the controller passes the model to the view and the view then updates itself.


Download the code

You can download the stock project from the link http://www.codeproject.com/KB/aspnet/ModelViewPresenter1/MVPStockSample.zip

 The project is coded from three aspects :-
• Using simple UI and Model perspective.
• Implementing MVP using WEB.
• Implementing MVP using windows.

The Web and windows samples are shown to show how we can reuse the presentation logic.


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What is the Use of interfaces?( .NET Interview questions with answers)

.NET interview questions: - What role did you play in your project and company?

Visual studio 2012 Fakes

.NET interview questions: - So how can we clean unmanaged objects and also maintain performance?

ADO.NET Interview Questions: - What are basic methods of Data adapter?

.NET interview questions: - What are system level exceptions and application level exceptions?

.NET interview questions: - What is UML and which are the important diagrams?

.NET interview questions: - What is time out support in regex (regular expression)?

.NET interview questions: - How can we improve performance of .NET?

.NET interview questions: - Can you explain the concept of “Short Circuiting”?

.NET interview questions: - Can you explain Forms authentication in detail?

What is the difference between VAR and Dynamic keyword? ( .NET Interview questions with answers)

.NET interview questions: - What are similarities and difference between Class and structure?

Can you compare String.IsNullOrEmpty vs String.IsNullOrWhiteSpace ? ( .Net Interview questions with answers)

.NET interview questions: - Distinguish between Reflection and Dynamic?

.NET interview questions: - In which scenarios we can use serialization and when to use what binary serialization or XML serialization?

.NET interview questions: - Are there any readymade objects in .NET by which we can implement Lazy loading?

.NET interview questions: - What are different access modifiers?

ADO.NET interview questions: - Explain in detail the fundamental of connection pooling how to enable and disable connection pooling?

ADO.NET interview questions: - What is the namespace in which .NET has the data functionality class?

ADO.NET interview questions: - What are the different components in ADO.NET?

ADO.NET interview questions: - Show difference between “Optimistic” and “Pessimistic” locking and how many ways are there to implement optimistic locking in ADO.NET?

.NET interview questions: - Does code contract only do dynamic checks?

ADO.NET interview questions: - How can we fire a simple SQL Statement using ADO.NET?

.NET interview questions: - What basic steps are needed to display a simple report in crystal?

ADO.NET interview questions: - What are basic methods of Data adapter and mention the use of data adapter?

.NET interview questions: - What is UML? How many types of diagrams are there in UML?

.Net Interview Questions - What is MVC, MVP and MVVM pattern?

.NET interview questions: - How can you define a property read only for external world and writable in the same assembly?

Explain the implicit and explicit conversion of data types with examples?( .NET interview questions on data type)

.NET interview questions: - What is Reflection its implementation and practical uses?

What is downcasting and upcasting? (.NET interview questions with answers)

.NET interview questions: - How to decide on the design consideration to take a Data grid, data list or repeater?

.NET interview questions: - If we want to update interface with new methods, what is the best practice?

.NET interview questions: - How does selection sort algorithm works?

XML(.NET) interview questions: - What is XML?

.NET Interview questions: - If a validation is very complex what will you do?

.NET interview questions: - How can we stop the class from further inheriting?

XML (.NET) Interview questions :- Explain simple Walk through of XmlReader.

.NET interview questions : - How can we improve performance of .NET and show the difference between .NET 1.X, 2.0, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0?

How to convert string to ENUM value ?( .NET interview questions with answers)

.NET architecture interview questions series: - What is mean by modeling language?

.NET architecture interview questions : - What are benefits and Limitation of using Viewstate, hidden frames and Cookies?

.NET interview questions: - What is GAC (Global Assembly Cache)?

.NET interview questions: - Explain Nuget?

.NET Testing interview questions: - What is the difference between Unit testing, Assembly testing and Regression testing?


.NET interview questions: - What is Code Access Security (CAS) and how does it work? Is CAS supported in .NET 4.0?


.NET interview questions: - What are the advantages /disadvantages of lazy loading?


.NET interview questions: - What is the use of DEBUG directive?


.NET testing interview questions: - What is Mock testing and how to implement it?


.NET interview questions: - What is the difference between DEBUG and Release?


.NET testing interview questions: - How can we UNIT test private methods using VSTS? Is it good to practice to UNIT test Private methods?


Explain 3 layer architecture ( .NET Interview questions)?


.NET interview questions : - What is a delegate and how can we create a delegate? What is a multicast delegate?


ADO.NET interview questions: - How to add/remove row is in “Data Table” object of “Dataset”? How to load multiple tables in a Dataset & adding relation between tables in a Dataset?


What is the difference between Array, ArrayList and List?( .Net Interview questions)

.NET interview questions: - How to implement DTC in .NET?
.NET interview questions: - What is an Interface and what are abstract classes

.NET interview questions: - Interface vs. abstract class

.NET interview questions: - How to implement practically Lazy loading in .NET?


.NET interview questions: - How can we handle exceptions in .NET? What if we do not catch the exception?

.NET interview questions based on Projects.


.NET interview questions: - What is shadowing? What is the difference between Shadowing and Overriding?

.NET interview questions: - All about Design Patterns in .NET


.NET interview questions: - How can we improve performance of .NET/ASP.NET/SQL Server?

.NET interview questions: - What benefits does sealed keyword provide?


.NET Architecture UML interview question


.NET interview questions: - How to maintain performance and can clean unmanaged objects?


.NET interview questions: - Explain ENUM and its benefits? What is the use of Flagsin ENUM?

.NET interview questions: - How to create a windows service using .NET?

.NET interview questions: - Explain in details about Indexer and can we have static indexer in C#?

.NET interview questions: - What is the difference between arraylist and list? Are Arraylist faster or Arrays?

.NET interview questions: - What is Native Image Generator (Ngen.exe)? Does NGEN.EXE always improve performance?

.NET OOPS interview questions: - What is OOP? What are different properties provided by Object-oriented systems?

.NET OOPS interview questions: - How abstract with only abstract method is it different from interfaces? Also mention best practice to update interface with new methods?

.NET interview questions: - What is the difference between delegate and events? Can we have return type, access modifiers and shared events?

.NET interview questions: - What is Manifest? Where is the version information stored of an assembly? Is versioning applicable to private assemblies?

.NET Generics interview questions: - Explain Generics and concept of Generic Collection in .NET?

How to learn .NET: - In parent-child relationship which constructor will fire first and in which instances you will declare a constructor private?

Basics of .NET and learning tutorials on CTS and CLS


Online resource to learn .NET on Reflection and Dynamic

Online guide to learn .NET for Object initializer in C#?

QuestPond for Freshers on IL code, JIT, CLR, CTS, CLS and CAS

QuestPond: Interview Questions and Answers on AJAX and how does it help?



ASP.NET Interview Questions & Answers Article










MVC Interview Questions And Answers Article

 

(MODEL VIEW CONTROLLER)MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VIDEO: – WHAT IS WEB API HOW TO IMPLEMENT THE SAME?

 

ASP.NET MVC  4 INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS: - WHAT IS BUNDLING AND MINIFICATION IN MODEL VIEW CONTROLLER ?

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS :- IS IT POSSIBLE TO RETURN VALUES INSTEAD OF ACTIONRESULTS?

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS :- WHAT ARE THE ACTIONRESULTS AVAILABLE IN MVC?

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS:-HTML.PARTIALVSHTML.RENDERPARTIALVSHTML.RENDERPAGE IN MVC

MVC VS ASP.NET ( MVC INTERVIEW QUESTION WITH ANSWERS )?

 

HOW CAN WE DETECT THAT A MVC CONTROLLER IS CALLED BY POST OR GET ? ( ASP.NET MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS)

 

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT WAYS BY WHICH YOU WILL GET FORM DATA IN CONTROLLER? ( MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS)

 

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRESENTER AND CONTROLLER IN MVC?(MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS)

 

LEARN MVC (MODEL VIEW CONTROLLER) STEP BY STEP IN 7 DAYS – DAY 4

 

MVC Interview questions and answers PDF

 

MVC interview questions with answers

 

ActionResult vs. View() vs. ViewResult :- MVC interview questions with answers

Explain Areas in MVC?( MVC interview questions with answers)

 

Can you explain the purpose of ViewModel in MVC?( ASP.NET MVC Interview questions with answers)

ASP.NET MVC interview questions: - What are Filters in MVC?

What are areas in MVC?( MVC Interview questions with answers)

Explain the concept of View Model in MVC? 

Exception Handling in MVC

Explain MVC application life cycle?

100 MVC Interview question PDF download released , Enjoy

How can we use two (multiple) models with a single view?(MVC Interview questions)

MVC HTML.Form vs Ajax.Form – MVC interview questions with answers

Learn Microsoft Business intelligence step by step – Day 1

Can you create TempBag just like ViewBag?( MVC Interview questions)

MVC Unit Testing Unleashed

MVC and .NET learning tutorials for components of MVC and how do you perform unit testing in MVC?

Explain MVC model binders ? ( ASP.NET MVC interview questions)

Explain the difference between layout and master pages ? (MVC Razor interview questions) 


ENTITY FRAMEWORK INTERVIEW QUESTIONS ARTICLE


Windows Workflow Foundation(WWF) interview questions with answers Article

XML Interview Questions With Answers Article


Explain XML,DTD and XSL?(XML interview questions with answers)

HTML 5 Interview questions With Answers Article

HTML 5 interview questions with answers for LocalStorage and SessionStorage

 

How is the page structure of HTML 5 different from HTML 4?( HTML 5 Interview questions with answers)

 

What is datalist in HTML 5 ( ASP.NET HTML interview questions)?

 

What are the different new form element types in HTML 5?( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

 

What is output element in HTML 5?( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

 

What is the difference between Canvas and SVG graphics?(ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

 

ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions on SVG and Canvas

ASP.NET HTML5 interview questions with answers

What are web workers and why do we need them ?( ASP.NET HTML interview questions with answers)

 

Why do we need HTML 5 server-sent events? (ASP.NET HTML interview questions)

How can we add and remove data from local storage?(ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

What is local storage concept in HTML 5? ( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

What is the difference between local storage and cookies? ( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

What is WebSQL?( ASP.Net HTML 5 interview questions)

 

What is session storage and how can you create one?( ASP.Net HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

 

What is application cache in HTML5?( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

ASP.NET HTML 5 Application cache interview questions with answers

 

Explain the term cascading in style sheet ? ( CSS Interview questions)

What is difference between DIV vs SPAN in HTML ?( ASP.Net Interview questions)

HTML 5 Canvas Interview questions: - Canvas in HTML 5.

QuestPond’s interview questions and answers on HTML 5

 

Learn HTML 5 in 3 days – Day 1

 

 

 

Dotnetspider Questions And Answers Article

 

 

What is downcasting and upcasting ? ( .NET interview questions with videos)

 

What is the difference between String vs string? ( C# interview questions) ?

 

 

JAVASCRIPT INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS ARTICLE

 


3 IMPORTANT JAVASCRIPT IMPORTANT INTERVIEW QUESTION WITH ANSWERS