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October 29 2010 6 29 /10 /October /2010 15:21

Six Sigma Interview Questions
Get Interview tutorials and videos on .NET 3.5, 4.0, Six,Sigma,ASP.NET  SQL Server, CAS, Security, WCF, SharePoint, Azure, OOPS and many more on www.questpond.com

 

Six Sigma

Introduction

I know many will not like my interview questions article. Some may think its bad for various reasons and some may think its good for quick revision. Again I repeat you do not get jobs by reading interview question and answers , but yes it definitely serves as a quick reference. So looking at the good part I continue my Interview questions and answers series. This time I will be writing from process point of view. Six sigma is a getting good recognition in the market and I am sure many professionals are asked questions on the same. So below is a quick revision which will give you a decent understanding of Six sigma from interview point of view.

 You can visit my website www.questpond.com for many such interview questions.

 

Project Management interview questions

(B) What is six sigma?


Sigma is a statistical measure of variation in a process. We say a process has achieved six sigma if the quality is 3.4 DPMO (Defect per Million opportunities). It’s a problem solving methodology that can be applied to a process to eliminate the root cause of defects and costs associated with the same.

Figure: - Six Sigma.


(I) Can you explain the different methodology for execution and design process in SIX sigma?


The main focus of SIX sigma is on reducing defects and variations in the processes.DMAIC and DMADV are the models used in most SIX sigma initiatives. DMADV is model for designing process while DMAIC is for improving the process.

DMADV model has the below five steps:-

• Define: - Determine the project goals and the requirements of customers (external and internal).
• Measure: - Assess customer needs and specifications.
• Analyze: - Examine process options to meet customer requirements.
• Design: - Develop the process to meet the customer requirements.
• Verify: - Check the design to ensure that it’s meeting customer requirements

DMAIC model has the below five steps:-

• Define the projects, the goals, and the deliverables to customers (internal and external). Describe and quantify both the defect and the expected improvement.
• Measure the current performance of the process. Validate data to make sure it is credible and set the baselines.
• Analyze and determine the root cause(s) of the defects. Narrow the causal factors to the vital few.
• Improve the process to eliminate defects. Optimize the vital few and their interrelationships.
• Control the performance of the process. Lock down the gains.




Figure: - Methodology in SIX Sigma

 

Figure: - DMAIC and DMADV


(I) What does executive leaders, champions, Master Black belt, green belts and black belts mean?


SIX sigma is not only about techniques, tools and statistics, but the main thing depends upon people. In SIX sigma there five key players:-

• Executive leaders
• Champions
• Master black belt
• Black belts
• Green belts
Let’s try to understand all the role of players step by step.

 

Executive leaders: - They are the main person who actually decides that we need to do SIX sigma. They promote it throughout organization and ensure commitment of the organization in SIX sigma. Executive leaders are the guys who are mainly either CEO or from the board of directors. So in short they are the guys who fund the SIX sigma initiative. They should believe that SIX sigma will improve the organization process and that they will succeed. They should be determined that they ensure resources get proper training on SIX sigma, understand how it will benefit the organization and track the metrics.

Champions: - Champion is a normally a senior manager of the company. He promotes SIX sigma mainly between the business users. He understand SIX sigma thoroughly , serves as a coach and mentor , selects project , decides objectives , dedicates resource to black belts and removes obstacles which come across black belt players. Historically Champions always fight for a cause. In SIX sigma they fight to remove black belt hurdles.

Master Black-Belt: - This role requires highest level of technical capability in SIX sigma. Normally organizations that are just starting up with SIX sigma will not have the same. So normally outsiders are recruited for the same. The main role of Master Black belt is to train, mentor and guide. He helps the executive leaders in selecting candidates, right project, teach the basic and train resources. They regularly meet with black belt and green belt training and mentor them.

Black-Belt: - Black belt leads a team on a selected project which has to be show cased for SIX sigma. They are mainly responsible to find out variations and see how these variations can be minimized. Mast black belt basically selects a project and train resources, but black belt are the guys who actually implement it. Black belt normally works in projects as team leads or project manager. They are central to SIX sigma as they are actually implementing SIX sigma in the organization.

Green Belt: - Green belt assist black belt in their functional areas. They are mainly in projects and work part time on SIX sigma implementation. They apply SIX sigma methodologies to solve problems and improve process at the bottom level. They have just enough knowledge of SIX sigma and they help to define the base of SIX sigma implementation in the organization. They assist black belt in SIX sigma implementation actually.

Figure: - SIX key players


(I) What are the different kinds of variations used in six sigma?


Variation is the basis of six sigma. It defines how much changes are happening in an output of a process. So if a process is improved then this should reduce variations. In six sigma we identify variations in the process, control them and reduce or eliminate defects. Now let’s understand how we can measure variations.

There are four basic ways of measuring variations Mean, Median, Mode and Range. Let’s understand each of these variations in more depth for better analysis.

Figure: - Different variations in Six sigma
 

Mean: - In mean the variations are measured and compared using math’s averaging techniques. For instance you can see the below figure which shows two weekly measures of how many computers are manufactured. So for that we have tracked two weeks one we have named as Week 1 and the other as Week 2. So to calculate variation by using mean we calculate the mean of week1 and week2. You can see from the calculations below we have got 5.083 for week and 2.85 for week2. So we have a variation of 2.23.


Figure: - Measuring variations by using Mean


Median: - Median value is a mid point in our range of data. Mid point can be found out using by finding the difference between highest and lowest value then divide it by two and finally add the lowest value to the same. For instance for the below figure in week1 we have 4 as the lowest value and 7 as the highest value. So first we subtract the lowest value from the highest value i.e. 7 -4. Then we divide it by two and add the lowest value. So for week1 the median is 5.5 and for week2 the median is 2.9. So the variation is 5.5 – 2.9.

 

Figure: - Median for calculating variations


Range: - Range is nothing but spread of value for a particular data range. In short it is the difference between highest and lowest values in particular data range. For instance you can see for recorded computer data of two week we have found out the range values by subtracting the highest value from the lowest.


Figure: - Range for calculating variations


Mode: - Mode is nothing but the most occurred values in a data range. For instance in our computer manufacturing data range 4 is the most occurred value in Week1 and 3 is the most occurred value in week 2. So the variation is 1 between these data ranges.

Figure: - Mode for calculating variations



(A) Can you explain the concept of standard deviation?


The most accurate method of quantifying variation is by using standard deviation. It indicates the degree of variation in a set of measurement or a process by measuring the average spread of data around the mean. It’s but complicated than the deviation process discussed in the previous question, but it does give accurate information.

Note: - To understand standard deviation we will be going through a bit of maths so please co-operate and keep your head cool. In the below steps we will go step by step and understand how we can implement standard deviation.

Below is the formula for Standard deviation. “σ“ symbol stands for standard deviation. X is the observed values; X (with the top bar) is the arithmetic mean and n is the number of observations. The formulae must be looking complicated by but let’s break up in to steps and understand it better.

 

Figure: - Standard deviation formulae


The first step is to calculate the mean. This can be calculated by adding all the observed values and dividing the same by the number of observed values.



Figure: - Step 1 Standard deviation


The second step is to subtract the average from each observation, square them and then sum them. Because we square them we will not get negative values. Below figure indicates the same in very detail manner.



Figure: - Step 2 Standard deviation



In the third step we divide the same with the number of observations as shown the figure.

 

Figure: - Step 3 Standard deviation


In the final step we take the square root which gives the standard deviation.

 

Figure: - Step 4 standard deviation


Note: - Below are some questions which we have not answered and left it as an exercise to the readers. We will definitely try to cover the same in the coming second edition.


(B) Can you explain the concept of fish bone/ Ishikawa diagram?


There are situations where we need to analyze what caused the failure or problem in a project. Fish bone or Ishikawa diagram is one of the important concept which can help you list down your root cause of the problem. Fish bone was conceptualized by Ishikawa, so in the honor of its inventor this concept was named as Ishikawa diagram. Inputs to conduct a fish bone diagram comes from discussion and brain storming with people who were involved in the project. Below figure shows how the structure of the Ishikawa diagram is.
Below is a sample fish bone diagram. The main bone is the problem which we need to address and to know what caused the failure. For instance the below fish bone is constructed to know what caused the project failure. To know this cause we have taken four main bones as inputs Finance, Process, People and Tools. For instance on the people front there are many resignations à this was caused because there was no job satisfaction à this was caused because the project was a maintenance project. In the same way causes are analyzed on the Tools front also. In tools à No tools were used in the project à because no resource had enough knowledge about the same à this happened because of lack of planning. In process front the process was adhoc àthis was because of tight dead lines à this was caused because marketing people over promised and did not negotiate properly with the end customer.

Now once the diagram is drawn the end bones of the fish bone signify the main cause of project failure. From the below diagram here’s a list:-

• No training was provided for the resources regarding tool.
• Marketing people over promised with customer which lead to tight dead lines.
• Resources resigned because it’s a maintenance project.

Figure: - Fish bone / Ishikawa diagram
 

(B) What is Pareto principle?


Pareto principle also paraphrased as 80/20 principle is simple effective problem tackling way in management. It says that 20% of your problems lead to other 80 % of problems. So rather than concentrating on the 80% of problem if you concentrate on 20% of problems you can save lot of trouble. So in Pareto you analyze the problems and only concentrate on 20% of your vital problems.

If you look at the above fish bone diagram we have discussed all the root problem is due to only three reasons:-
• No tools are used.
• No process is defines.
• Many resignations.

So if we tackle these problems we can solve all the other problems.

(A) Can you explain QFD?

(A) Can you explain FMEA?

(A) Can you explain X bar charts?

(A) Can you explain Flow charting and brain storming?

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.NET interview questions: - Distinguish between Reflection and Dynamic?

.NET interview questions: - In which scenarios we can use serialization and when to use what binary serialization or XML serialization?

.NET interview questions: - Are there any readymade objects in .NET by which we can implement Lazy loading?

.NET interview questions: - What are different access modifiers?

ADO.NET interview questions: - Explain in detail the fundamental of connection pooling how to enable and disable connection pooling?

ADO.NET interview questions: - What is the namespace in which .NET has the data functionality class?

ADO.NET interview questions: - What are the different components in ADO.NET?

ADO.NET interview questions: - Show difference between “Optimistic” and “Pessimistic” locking and how many ways are there to implement optimistic locking in ADO.NET?

.NET interview questions: - Does code contract only do dynamic checks?

ADO.NET interview questions: - How can we fire a simple SQL Statement using ADO.NET?

.NET interview questions: - What basic steps are needed to display a simple report in crystal?

ADO.NET interview questions: - What are basic methods of Data adapter and mention the use of data adapter?

.NET interview questions: - What is UML? How many types of diagrams are there in UML?

.Net Interview Questions - What is MVC, MVP and MVVM pattern?

.NET interview questions: - How can you define a property read only for external world and writable in the same assembly?

Explain the implicit and explicit conversion of data types with examples?( .NET interview questions on data type)

.NET interview questions: - What is Reflection its implementation and practical uses?

What is downcasting and upcasting? (.NET interview questions with answers)

.NET interview questions: - How to decide on the design consideration to take a Data grid, data list or repeater?

.NET interview questions: - If we want to update interface with new methods, what is the best practice?

.NET interview questions: - How does selection sort algorithm works?

XML(.NET) interview questions: - What is XML?

.NET Interview questions: - If a validation is very complex what will you do?

.NET interview questions: - How can we stop the class from further inheriting?

XML (.NET) Interview questions :- Explain simple Walk through of XmlReader.

.NET interview questions : - How can we improve performance of .NET and show the difference between .NET 1.X, 2.0, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0?

How to convert string to ENUM value ?( .NET interview questions with answers)

.NET architecture interview questions series: - What is mean by modeling language?

.NET architecture interview questions : - What are benefits and Limitation of using Viewstate, hidden frames and Cookies?

.NET interview questions: - What is GAC (Global Assembly Cache)?

.NET interview questions: - Explain Nuget?

.NET Testing interview questions: - What is the difference between Unit testing, Assembly testing and Regression testing?


.NET interview questions: - What is Code Access Security (CAS) and how does it work? Is CAS supported in .NET 4.0?


.NET interview questions: - What are the advantages /disadvantages of lazy loading?


.NET interview questions: - What is the use of DEBUG directive?


.NET testing interview questions: - What is Mock testing and how to implement it?


.NET interview questions: - What is the difference between DEBUG and Release?


.NET testing interview questions: - How can we UNIT test private methods using VSTS? Is it good to practice to UNIT test Private methods?


Explain 3 layer architecture ( .NET Interview questions)?


.NET interview questions : - What is a delegate and how can we create a delegate? What is a multicast delegate?


ADO.NET interview questions: - How to add/remove row is in “Data Table” object of “Dataset”? How to load multiple tables in a Dataset & adding relation between tables in a Dataset?


What is the difference between Array, ArrayList and List?( .Net Interview questions)

.NET interview questions: - How to implement DTC in .NET?
.NET interview questions: - What is an Interface and what are abstract classes

.NET interview questions: - Interface vs. abstract class

.NET interview questions: - How to implement practically Lazy loading in .NET?


.NET interview questions: - How can we handle exceptions in .NET? What if we do not catch the exception?

.NET interview questions based on Projects.


.NET interview questions: - What is shadowing? What is the difference between Shadowing and Overriding?

.NET interview questions: - All about Design Patterns in .NET


.NET interview questions: - How can we improve performance of .NET/ASP.NET/SQL Server?

.NET interview questions: - What benefits does sealed keyword provide?


.NET Architecture UML interview question


.NET interview questions: - How to maintain performance and can clean unmanaged objects?


.NET interview questions: - Explain ENUM and its benefits? What is the use of Flagsin ENUM?

.NET interview questions: - How to create a windows service using .NET?

.NET interview questions: - Explain in details about Indexer and can we have static indexer in C#?

.NET interview questions: - What is the difference between arraylist and list? Are Arraylist faster or Arrays?

.NET interview questions: - What is Native Image Generator (Ngen.exe)? Does NGEN.EXE always improve performance?

.NET OOPS interview questions: - What is OOP? What are different properties provided by Object-oriented systems?

.NET OOPS interview questions: - How abstract with only abstract method is it different from interfaces? Also mention best practice to update interface with new methods?

.NET interview questions: - What is the difference between delegate and events? Can we have return type, access modifiers and shared events?

.NET interview questions: - What is Manifest? Where is the version information stored of an assembly? Is versioning applicable to private assemblies?

.NET Generics interview questions: - Explain Generics and concept of Generic Collection in .NET?

How to learn .NET: - In parent-child relationship which constructor will fire first and in which instances you will declare a constructor private?

Basics of .NET and learning tutorials on CTS and CLS


Online resource to learn .NET on Reflection and Dynamic

Online guide to learn .NET for Object initializer in C#?

QuestPond for Freshers on IL code, JIT, CLR, CTS, CLS and CAS

QuestPond: Interview Questions and Answers on AJAX and how does it help?



ASP.NET Interview Questions & Answers Article










MVC Interview Questions And Answers Article

 

(MODEL VIEW CONTROLLER)MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VIDEO: – WHAT IS WEB API HOW TO IMPLEMENT THE SAME?

 

ASP.NET MVC  4 INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS: - WHAT IS BUNDLING AND MINIFICATION IN MODEL VIEW CONTROLLER ?

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS :- IS IT POSSIBLE TO RETURN VALUES INSTEAD OF ACTIONRESULTS?

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS :- WHAT ARE THE ACTIONRESULTS AVAILABLE IN MVC?

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS:-HTML.PARTIALVSHTML.RENDERPARTIALVSHTML.RENDERPAGE IN MVC

MVC VS ASP.NET ( MVC INTERVIEW QUESTION WITH ANSWERS )?

 

HOW CAN WE DETECT THAT A MVC CONTROLLER IS CALLED BY POST OR GET ? ( ASP.NET MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS)

 

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT WAYS BY WHICH YOU WILL GET FORM DATA IN CONTROLLER? ( MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS)

 

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRESENTER AND CONTROLLER IN MVC?(MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS)

 

LEARN MVC (MODEL VIEW CONTROLLER) STEP BY STEP IN 7 DAYS – DAY 4

 

MVC Interview questions and answers PDF

 

MVC interview questions with answers

 

ActionResult vs. View() vs. ViewResult :- MVC interview questions with answers

Explain Areas in MVC?( MVC interview questions with answers)

 

Can you explain the purpose of ViewModel in MVC?( ASP.NET MVC Interview questions with answers)

ASP.NET MVC interview questions: - What are Filters in MVC?

What are areas in MVC?( MVC Interview questions with answers)

Explain the concept of View Model in MVC? 

Exception Handling in MVC

Explain MVC application life cycle?

100 MVC Interview question PDF download released , Enjoy

How can we use two (multiple) models with a single view?(MVC Interview questions)

MVC HTML.Form vs Ajax.Form – MVC interview questions with answers

Learn Microsoft Business intelligence step by step – Day 1

Can you create TempBag just like ViewBag?( MVC Interview questions)

MVC Unit Testing Unleashed

MVC and .NET learning tutorials for components of MVC and how do you perform unit testing in MVC?

Explain MVC model binders ? ( ASP.NET MVC interview questions)

Explain the difference between layout and master pages ? (MVC Razor interview questions) 


ENTITY FRAMEWORK INTERVIEW QUESTIONS ARTICLE


Windows Workflow Foundation(WWF) interview questions with answers Article

XML Interview Questions With Answers Article


Explain XML,DTD and XSL?(XML interview questions with answers)

HTML 5 Interview questions With Answers Article

HTML 5 interview questions with answers for LocalStorage and SessionStorage

 

How is the page structure of HTML 5 different from HTML 4?( HTML 5 Interview questions with answers)

 

What is datalist in HTML 5 ( ASP.NET HTML interview questions)?

 

What are the different new form element types in HTML 5?( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

 

What is output element in HTML 5?( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

 

What is the difference between Canvas and SVG graphics?(ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

 

ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions on SVG and Canvas

ASP.NET HTML5 interview questions with answers

What are web workers and why do we need them ?( ASP.NET HTML interview questions with answers)

 

Why do we need HTML 5 server-sent events? (ASP.NET HTML interview questions)

How can we add and remove data from local storage?(ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

What is local storage concept in HTML 5? ( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

What is the difference between local storage and cookies? ( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

What is WebSQL?( ASP.Net HTML 5 interview questions)

 

What is session storage and how can you create one?( ASP.Net HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

 

What is application cache in HTML5?( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

ASP.NET HTML 5 Application cache interview questions with answers

 

Explain the term cascading in style sheet ? ( CSS Interview questions)

What is difference between DIV vs SPAN in HTML ?( ASP.Net Interview questions)

HTML 5 Canvas Interview questions: - Canvas in HTML 5.

QuestPond’s interview questions and answers on HTML 5

 

Learn HTML 5 in 3 days – Day 1

 

 

 

Dotnetspider Questions And Answers Article

 

 

What is downcasting and upcasting ? ( .NET interview questions with videos)

 

What is the difference between String vs string? ( C# interview questions) ?

 

 

JAVASCRIPT INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS ARTICLE

 


3 IMPORTANT JAVASCRIPT IMPORTANT INTERVIEW QUESTION WITH ANSWERS