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October 27 2010 4 27 /10 /October /2010 21:07

SOA ( Service oriented architecture Interview questions Part 1)
Get Interview tutorials and videos on .NET 3.5, 4.0, Pessimistic, Optimistic, Locking, SQL Server, CAS, Security, WCF, SharePoint, Azure, OOPS and many more on www.questpond.com




(B) What is SOA?

(I) In SOA do we need to build systems from scratch?

(I) Can you explain business layers and plumbing layers in SOA?

(I) what’s the difference between services and components?

(A) Can you describe the complete architecture of SOA?

(I) Can you explain a practical example in SOA?

(I) What are ends, contract, address, and bindings?

(I) Are web-services SOA ?

Introduction

In my previous section we had concentrated on design patterns and UML which is one of the most important fundamentals for architecture interviews. One of the other areas other than both of them which needs to be stronger for architects is understanding of SOA.

Again i repeat do not think you get an architecture position by reading interview questions. But yes there should be some kind of reference which will help you quickly revise what are the definition. Just by reading these answers you get to a position where you are aware of the fundamentals. But if you have not really worked you will surely fail with scenario based questions. So use this as a quick revision rather than a shot cut.

To give you a practical understanding i have put all these design patterns in a video format and uploaded on http://www.questpond.com/FreeDesign1.htm . You can visit http://www.questpond.com and download the complete architecture interview questions PDF which covers SOA , UML , Design patterns , Togaf , OOPs etc.

Happy job hunting......

(B) What is SOA?

SOA stands for service oriented architecture. Before we define SOA lets first define a service. In real world service is what we pay for and we get the intended service. For instance you go to a hotel and order food. Your order first goes to the counter and then it goes to the kitchen where the food is prepared and finally the waiter serves the food.


Figure: - Hotel and services


So in order to order a item from a hotel you need the three logical departments / services to work together (counter, kitchen and waiter).

In the same manner in software world these services are termed as business services. They are self contained and logical. So let’s first define a business service, SOA definition will be just an extension of the same.

Definition of business service: - It’s a logical encapsulation of self contained business functionality.

For instance figure ‘order system’ shows a simple ordering system which is achieved by different services like payment gateway, stock system and delivery system coming together. All the services are self contained and logical. They are like black boxes. In short we do not need to understand the internal details of how the business service works. For the external world it’s just a black box which takes messages and serves accordingly. For instance the ‘payment gateway’ business service takes message ‘check credit’ and gives out output does the customer have credit or not. For the ‘order system’ business service ‘payment gateway’ service is a black box.

Figure: - Order system


Now let’s revise some bullet points of SOA before we arrive to a definition of SOA.

SOA components are loosely coupled. When we say loosely coupled means every service is self contained and exist in alone logically. For instance we take the ‘payment gateway’ service and attach it to a different system.

SOA services are black boxes. In SOA services hide there inner complexities. They only interact using messages and send services depending on those messages. By visualizing services as black boxes services become more loosely coupled.

SOA service should be self defined: - SOA services should be able to define themselves.

SOA Services are maintained in a listing: - SOA services are maintained in a central repository. Applications can search the services in the central repository and use them accordingly.

SOA components can be orchestrated and linked to achieve a particular functionality. SOA services can be used/orchestrated in a plug and play manner. For instance figure ‘Orchestration’ shows two services ‘Security service’ and ‘Order processing service’. You can achieve two types of orchestrations from it one you can check the user first and then process order or vice-versa. Yes you guessed right using SOA we can manage work flow between services in a loosely coupled
fashion.

Figure: - Orchestration

So lets define SOA.

SOA is a architecture for building business applications using loosely coupled services which act like black boxes and can be orchestrated to achieve a specific functionality by linking together.

(I) In SOA do we need to build systems from scratch?


No. If you need to integrate or make an existing system as a business service, you just need to create loosely coupled wrappers which will wrap your custom systems and expose the systems functionality in generic fashion to the external world.

(I) Can you explain business layers and plumbing layers in SOA?


In SOA we can divide any architecture in two layers. The first which has direct relevance to business as it carries out business functions. The second layer is a technical layer which talks about managing computer resources like database, web server etc. This division is needed to identify a service. Consider the figure ‘Simple order system’. It has various components which interact with each other to complete the order system functionality.


Figure: - Simple order System

The simple order system can be divided in to two layers (see figure ‘business and plumbing layer’ one which is business related and second which is more technical related. You can see the plumbing layer consisting of data access layer , AJAX , yes more of technical stuff.

Figure: - Business layer and plumbing layer

(I) what’s the difference between services and components?


Services are logical grouping of components to achieve business functionality. Components are implementation approaches to make a service. The components can be in JAVA, C#, C++ but the services will be exposed in a general format like Web Services.

(A) Can you describe the complete architecture of SOA?


Figure ‘Architecture of SOA’ shows a complete view of a SOA. Please note this architecture diagram is not tied up with implementation of Microsoft, IBM etc. It’s a general architecture. Any vendor who implements SOA needs to fulfill the below SOA components. How they do it is completely their own technological implementation.

Figure: - Architecture of SOA


The main goal of SOA is to connect disparate systems. In order that these disparate system work they should messages to each other. ESB (Enterprise service bus) acts like a reliable post office which guarantees delivery of messages between systems in a loosely coupled manner. ESB is a special layer which delivers messages between applications. In the figure we have shown a huge plump pipe. It’s not hardware or some wire etc. It’s a group of components/software which helps you to send and receive messages between the disparate applications. Do not try to code your own ESB, you can think of buying one from Microsoft, IBM, Oracle, progress etc.

SOA registry is like a reference database of services. It describes what each services do, where are they located and how can they communicate. It’s a central reference of meta-data for services.

SOA workflow allows us to define work flow using the services in SOA registry. We will read more about BPM in the further questions.

Service broker reads the work flow and takes services from the SOA registry and ties them together. Service brokers are normally middleware like EAI (Enterprise application Integration) products. You can get a list of decent EAI from Sun, Microsoft, and IBM etc.

Process manager is nothing but the collection of SOA registry, SOA workflow and service broker.

SOA supervisor is traffic cop ensuring that services do not have issues. It deals mainly with performance issues of the system so that appropriate service levels are met. If any of the services have performance problems it sends messages to the proper infrastructure to fix the issue.

Note: - The above explanation is of general architecture for SOA. Any vendor (Microsoft, IBM, SUN etc) who gives solution for SOA should have the above components in some or other manner. As this is a Software architecture book, we will not be covering specific vendor implementation. We would advise the reader to map the same to their vendor products for better understanding.


(I) Can you explain a practical example in SOA?

 

(I) What are ends, contract, address, and bindings?


These three terminologies on which SOA service stands. Every service must expose one or more ends by which the service can be available to the client. End consists of three important things where, what and how:-

Contract (What)

Contract is an agreement between two or more parties. It defines the protocol how client should communicate with your service. Technically, it describes parameters and return values for a method.

Address (Where)

An Address indicates where we can find this service. Address is a URL, which points to the location of the service.

Binding (How)

Bindings determine how this end can be accessed. It determines how communications is done. For instance, you expose your service, which can be accessed using SOAP over HTTP or BINARY over TCP. So for each of these communications medium two bindings will be created.

Below figure, show the three main components of end. You can see the stock ticker is the service class, which has an end hosted on www.soa.com with HTTP and TCP binding support and using Stock Ticker interface type.

Figure: - Endpoint Architecture


Note: - You can also remember the end point by ABC where A stands for Address, B for bindings and C for Contract.


(I) Are web-services SOA ?


SOA is a thinking, it’s an architectural concept and web service is one of the technical approach to complete it. Web services are the preferred standards to achieve SOA.

• In SOA we need the services to be loosely coupled. A web service communicates using SOAP protocol which is XML based which is very loosely coupled. It answers the what part of the service.
• SOA services should be able to describe themselves.WSDL describes how we can access the service.
• SOA services are located in a directory.UDDI describes where we can get the web service. This nothing but implementation of SOA registry.

 

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plumbing supplies 07/28/2012 15:29

Architecture is the art and science of designing and erecting buildings. Architecture precedes architectural engineering by centuries in existence and leans more toward being an art than a science,
although you must have some knowledge of construction methods and materials to work successfully.

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.NET interview questions: - What is UML? How many types of diagrams are there in UML?

.Net Interview Questions - What is MVC, MVP and MVVM pattern?

.NET interview questions: - How can you define a property read only for external world and writable in the same assembly?

Explain the implicit and explicit conversion of data types with examples?( .NET interview questions on data type)

.NET interview questions: - What is Reflection its implementation and practical uses?

What is downcasting and upcasting? (.NET interview questions with answers)

.NET interview questions: - How to decide on the design consideration to take a Data grid, data list or repeater?

.NET interview questions: - If we want to update interface with new methods, what is the best practice?

.NET interview questions: - How does selection sort algorithm works?

XML(.NET) interview questions: - What is XML?

.NET Interview questions: - If a validation is very complex what will you do?

.NET interview questions: - How can we stop the class from further inheriting?

XML (.NET) Interview questions :- Explain simple Walk through of XmlReader.

.NET interview questions : - How can we improve performance of .NET and show the difference between .NET 1.X, 2.0, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0?

How to convert string to ENUM value ?( .NET interview questions with answers)

.NET architecture interview questions series: - What is mean by modeling language?

.NET architecture interview questions : - What are benefits and Limitation of using Viewstate, hidden frames and Cookies?

.NET interview questions: - What is GAC (Global Assembly Cache)?

.NET interview questions: - Explain Nuget?

.NET Testing interview questions: - What is the difference between Unit testing, Assembly testing and Regression testing?


.NET interview questions: - What is Code Access Security (CAS) and how does it work? Is CAS supported in .NET 4.0?


.NET interview questions: - What are the advantages /disadvantages of lazy loading?


.NET interview questions: - What is the use of DEBUG directive?


.NET testing interview questions: - What is Mock testing and how to implement it?


.NET interview questions: - What is the difference between DEBUG and Release?


.NET testing interview questions: - How can we UNIT test private methods using VSTS? Is it good to practice to UNIT test Private methods?


Explain 3 layer architecture ( .NET Interview questions)?


.NET interview questions : - What is a delegate and how can we create a delegate? What is a multicast delegate?


ADO.NET interview questions: - How to add/remove row is in “Data Table” object of “Dataset”? How to load multiple tables in a Dataset & adding relation between tables in a Dataset?


What is the difference between Array, ArrayList and List?( .Net Interview questions)

.NET interview questions: - How to implement DTC in .NET?
.NET interview questions: - What is an Interface and what are abstract classes

.NET interview questions: - Interface vs. abstract class

.NET interview questions: - How to implement practically Lazy loading in .NET?


.NET interview questions: - How can we handle exceptions in .NET? What if we do not catch the exception?

.NET interview questions based on Projects.


.NET interview questions: - What is shadowing? What is the difference between Shadowing and Overriding?

.NET interview questions: - All about Design Patterns in .NET


.NET interview questions: - How can we improve performance of .NET/ASP.NET/SQL Server?

.NET interview questions: - What benefits does sealed keyword provide?


.NET Architecture UML interview question


.NET interview questions: - How to maintain performance and can clean unmanaged objects?


.NET interview questions: - Explain ENUM and its benefits? What is the use of Flagsin ENUM?

.NET interview questions: - How to create a windows service using .NET?

.NET interview questions: - Explain in details about Indexer and can we have static indexer in C#?

.NET interview questions: - What is the difference between arraylist and list? Are Arraylist faster or Arrays?

.NET interview questions: - What is Native Image Generator (Ngen.exe)? Does NGEN.EXE always improve performance?

.NET OOPS interview questions: - What is OOP? What are different properties provided by Object-oriented systems?

.NET OOPS interview questions: - How abstract with only abstract method is it different from interfaces? Also mention best practice to update interface with new methods?

.NET interview questions: - What is the difference between delegate and events? Can we have return type, access modifiers and shared events?

.NET interview questions: - What is Manifest? Where is the version information stored of an assembly? Is versioning applicable to private assemblies?

.NET Generics interview questions: - Explain Generics and concept of Generic Collection in .NET?

How to learn .NET: - In parent-child relationship which constructor will fire first and in which instances you will declare a constructor private?

Basics of .NET and learning tutorials on CTS and CLS


Online resource to learn .NET on Reflection and Dynamic

Online guide to learn .NET for Object initializer in C#?

QuestPond for Freshers on IL code, JIT, CLR, CTS, CLS and CAS

QuestPond: Interview Questions and Answers on AJAX and how does it help?



ASP.NET Interview Questions & Answers Article










MVC Interview Questions And Answers Article

 

(MODEL VIEW CONTROLLER)MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VIDEO: – WHAT IS WEB API HOW TO IMPLEMENT THE SAME?

 

ASP.NET MVC  4 INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS: - WHAT IS BUNDLING AND MINIFICATION IN MODEL VIEW CONTROLLER ?

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS :- IS IT POSSIBLE TO RETURN VALUES INSTEAD OF ACTIONRESULTS?

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS :- WHAT ARE THE ACTIONRESULTS AVAILABLE IN MVC?

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS:-HTML.PARTIALVSHTML.RENDERPARTIALVSHTML.RENDERPAGE IN MVC

MVC VS ASP.NET ( MVC INTERVIEW QUESTION WITH ANSWERS )?

 

HOW CAN WE DETECT THAT A MVC CONTROLLER IS CALLED BY POST OR GET ? ( ASP.NET MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS)

 

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT WAYS BY WHICH YOU WILL GET FORM DATA IN CONTROLLER? ( MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS)

 

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRESENTER AND CONTROLLER IN MVC?(MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS)

 

LEARN MVC (MODEL VIEW CONTROLLER) STEP BY STEP IN 7 DAYS – DAY 4

 

MVC Interview questions and answers PDF

 

MVC interview questions with answers

 

ActionResult vs. View() vs. ViewResult :- MVC interview questions with answers

Explain Areas in MVC?( MVC interview questions with answers)

 

Can you explain the purpose of ViewModel in MVC?( ASP.NET MVC Interview questions with answers)

ASP.NET MVC interview questions: - What are Filters in MVC?

What are areas in MVC?( MVC Interview questions with answers)

Explain the concept of View Model in MVC? 

Exception Handling in MVC

Explain MVC application life cycle?

100 MVC Interview question PDF download released , Enjoy

How can we use two (multiple) models with a single view?(MVC Interview questions)

MVC HTML.Form vs Ajax.Form – MVC interview questions with answers

Learn Microsoft Business intelligence step by step – Day 1

Can you create TempBag just like ViewBag?( MVC Interview questions)

MVC Unit Testing Unleashed

MVC and .NET learning tutorials for components of MVC and how do you perform unit testing in MVC?

Explain MVC model binders ? ( ASP.NET MVC interview questions)

Explain the difference between layout and master pages ? (MVC Razor interview questions) 


ENTITY FRAMEWORK INTERVIEW QUESTIONS ARTICLE


Windows Workflow Foundation(WWF) interview questions with answers Article

XML Interview Questions With Answers Article


Explain XML,DTD and XSL?(XML interview questions with answers)

HTML 5 Interview questions With Answers Article

HTML 5 interview questions with answers for LocalStorage and SessionStorage

 

How is the page structure of HTML 5 different from HTML 4?( HTML 5 Interview questions with answers)

 

What is datalist in HTML 5 ( ASP.NET HTML interview questions)?

 

What are the different new form element types in HTML 5?( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

 

What is output element in HTML 5?( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

 

What is the difference between Canvas and SVG graphics?(ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

 

ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions on SVG and Canvas

ASP.NET HTML5 interview questions with answers

What are web workers and why do we need them ?( ASP.NET HTML interview questions with answers)

 

Why do we need HTML 5 server-sent events? (ASP.NET HTML interview questions)

How can we add and remove data from local storage?(ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

What is local storage concept in HTML 5? ( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

What is the difference between local storage and cookies? ( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

What is WebSQL?( ASP.Net HTML 5 interview questions)

 

What is session storage and how can you create one?( ASP.Net HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

 

What is application cache in HTML5?( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

ASP.NET HTML 5 Application cache interview questions with answers

 

Explain the term cascading in style sheet ? ( CSS Interview questions)

What is difference between DIV vs SPAN in HTML ?( ASP.Net Interview questions)

HTML 5 Canvas Interview questions: - Canvas in HTML 5.

QuestPond’s interview questions and answers on HTML 5

 

Learn HTML 5 in 3 days – Day 1

 

 

 

Dotnetspider Questions And Answers Article

 

 

What is downcasting and upcasting ? ( .NET interview questions with videos)

 

What is the difference between String vs string? ( C# interview questions) ?

 

 

JAVASCRIPT INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS ARTICLE

 


3 IMPORTANT JAVASCRIPT IMPORTANT INTERVIEW QUESTION WITH ANSWERS