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November 19 2010 6 19 /11 /November /2010 19:47

 

Design pattern FAQ Part 2 (Design pattern training series)

Get Interview tutorials and videos on .NET 3.5, 4.0, Architecture,Design pattern, SQL Server, CAS, Security, WCF, SharePoint, Azure, OOPS and many more on www.questpond.com


Introduction

Again i repeat do not think you get an architecture position by reading interview questions. But yes there should be some kind of reference which will help you quickly revise what are the definition. Just by reading these answers you get to a position where you are aware of the fundamentals. But if you have not really worked you will surely fail with scenario based questions. So use this as a quick revision rather than a shot cut.

In case your are completely new to design patterns or you really do not want to read this complete   article do see our free design pattern Training and interview questions / answers videos.



 

(I) what is Interpreter pattern?

Interpreter pattern allows us to interpret grammar in to code solutions. Ok, what does that mean?. Grammars are mapped to classes to arrive to a solution. For instance 7 – 2 can be mapped to ‘clsMinus’ class. In one line interpreter pattern gives us the solution of how to write an interpreter which can read a grammar and execute the same in the code. For instance below is a simple example where we can give the date format grammar and the interpreter will convert the same in to code solutions and give the desired output.

 

 

 

 

Figure: - Date Grammar



Let’s make an interpreter for date formats as shown in figure ‘Date Grammar’. Before we start lets understand the different components of interpreter pattern and then we will map the same to make the date grammar. Context contains the data and the logic part contains the logic which will convert the context to readable format.



 

 

Figure: - Context and Logic



Let’s understand what is the grammar in the date format is. To define any grammar we should first break grammar in small logical components. Figure ‘Grammar mapped to classes’ show how different components are identified and then mapped to classes which will have the logic to implement only that portion of the grammar. So we have broken the date format in to four components Month, Day, Year and the separator. For all these four components we will define separate classes which will contain the logic as shown in figure ‘Grammar mapped to classes’. So we will be creating different classes for the various components of the date format.

 

 

 

 

 

Figure: - Grammar mapped to classes

 



As said there are two classes one is the expression classes which contain logic and the other is the context class which contain data as shown in figure ‘Expression and Context classes’. We have defined all the expression parsing in different classes, all these classes inherit from common interface ‘ClsAbstractExpression’ with a method ‘Evaluate’. The ‘Evaluate’ method takes a context class which has the data; this method parses data according to the expression logic. For instance ‘ClsYearExpression’ replaces the ‘YYYY’ with the year value,’’ClsMonthExpression’ replaces the ‘MM’ with month and so on.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure :- Class diagram for interpreter

 


 

 

Figure: - Expression and Context classes

 



Now that we have separate expression parsing logic in different classes, let’s look at how the client will use the iterator logic. The client first passes the date grammar format to the context class. Depending on the date format we now start adding the expressions in a collection. So if we find a ‘DD” we add the ‘ClsDayExpression’, if we find ‘MM’ we add ‘ClsMonthExpression’ and so on. Finally we just loop and call the ‘Evaluate’ method. Once all the evaluate methods are called we display the output.

 

 

 

 

 

Figure: - Client Interpreter logic

 


Note :- You can find the code for interpreter in ‘Interpeter’ folder.

 

 

(B) Can you explain iterator pattern?

Iterator pattern allows sequential access of elements with out exposing the inside code. Let’s understand what it means. Let’s say you have a collection of records which you want to browse sequentially and also maintain the current place which recordset is browsed, then the answer is iterator pattern. It’s the most common and unknowingly used pattern. Whenever you use a ‘foreach’ (It allows us to loop through a collection sequentially) loop you are already using iterator pattern to some extent.

 




Figure: - Iterator business logic



In figure ‘Iterator business logic’ we have the ‘clsIterator’ class which has collection of customer classes. So we have defined an array list inside the ‘clsIterator’ class and a ‘FillObjects’ method which loads the array list with data. The customer collection array list is private and customer data can be looked up by using the index of the array list. So we have public function like ‘getByIndex’ ( which can look up using a particular index) , ‘Prev’ ( Gets the previous customer in the collection , ‘Next’ (Gets the next customer in the collection), ‘getFirst’ ( Gets the first customer in the collection ) and ‘getLast’ ( Gets the last customer in the collection).

So the client is exposed only these functions. These functions take care of accessing the collection sequentially and also it remembers which index is accessed.

Below figures ‘Client Iterator Logic’ shows how the ‘ObjIterator’ object which is created from class ‘clsIterator’ is used to display next, previous, last, first and customer by index.


Figure: - Client Iterator logic


Note :- You can get a sample C# code in the ‘Iterator’ folder of the CD provided with this book.

 

(A) Can you explain mediator pattern?


Many a times in projects communication between components are complex. Due to this the logic between the components becomes very complex. Mediator pattern helps the objects to communicate in a disassociated manner, which leads to minimizing complexity.



 

 

Figure: - Mediator sample example


Let’s consider the figure ‘Mediator sample example’ which depicts a true scenario of the need of mediator pattern. It’s a very user-friendly user interface. It has three typical scenarios.
Scenario 1:- When a user writes in the text box it should enable the add and the clear button. In case there is nothing in the text box it should disable the add and the clear button.

 



Figure: - Scenario 1


Scenario 2:- When the user clicks on the add button the data should get entered in the list box. Once the data is entered in the list box it should clear the text box and disable the add and clear button.




Figure: - Scenario 2


Scenario 3:- If the user click the clear button it should clear the name text box and disable the add and clear button.



Figure: - Scenario 3


Now looking at the above scenarios for the UI we can conclude how complex the interaction will be in between these UI’s. Below figure ‘Complex interactions between components’ depicts the logical complexity.




Figure: - Complex interactions between components


Ok now let me give you a nice picture as shown below ‘Simplifying using mediator’. Rather than components communicating directly with each other if they communicate to centralized component like mediator and then mediator takes care of sending those messages to other components, logic will be neat and clean.



Figure: - Simplifying using mediator


Now let’s look at how the code will look. We will be using C# but you can easily replicate the thought to JAVA or any other language of your choice. Below figure ‘Mediator class’ shows the complete code overview of what the mediator class will look like.


The first thing the mediator class does is takes the references of the classes which have the complex communication. So here we have exposed three overloaded methods by name ‘Register’. ‘Register’ method takes the text box object and the button objects. The interaction scenarios are centralized in ‘ClickAddButton’,’TextChange’ and ‘ClickClearButton’ methods. These methods will take care of the enable and disable of UI components according to scenarios.



Figure: - Mediator class



The client logic is pretty neat and cool now. In the constructor we first register all the components with complex interactions with the mediator. Now for every scenario we just call the mediator methods. In short when there is a text change we can the ‘TextChange’ method of the mediator, when the user clicks add we call the ‘ClickAddButton’ and for clear click we call the ‘ClickClearButton’.



Figure: - Mediator client logic


Note :- You can get the C# code for the above mediator example in the ‘mediator’ folder.

(I) Can you explain memento pattern?


Memento pattern is the way to capture objects internal state with out violating encapsulation. Memento pattern helps us to store a snapshot which can be reverted at any moment of time by the object. Let’s understand what it means in practical sense. Consider figure ‘Memento practical example’, it shows a customer screen. Let’s say if the user starts editing a customer record and he makes some changes. Later he feels that he has done something wrong and he wants to revert back to the original data. This is where memento comes in to play. It will help us store a copy of data and in case the user presses cancel the object restores to its original state.


Figure: - Memento practical example


Let’s try to complete the same example in C# for the customer UI which we had just gone through. Below is the customer class ‘clsCustomer’ which has the aggregated memento class ‘clsCustomerMemento’ which will hold the snapshot of the data. The memento class ‘clsCustomerMemento’ is the exact replica ( excluding methods ) of the customer class ‘clsCustomer’. When the customer class ‘clsCustomer’ gets initialized the memento class also gets initialized. When the customer class data is changed the memento class snapshot is not changed. The ‘Revert’ method sets back the memento data to the main class.


Figure: - Customer class for memento


The client code is pretty simple. We create the customer class. In case we have issues we click the cancel button which in turn calls the ‘revert’ method and reverts the changed data back to the memento snapshot data. Figure ‘Memento client code’ shows the same in a pictorial format.




Figure: - Memento client code


Note :- A sample code in C# for memento is available in the memento folder of the CD.


(B) Can you explain observer pattern?


Observer pattern helps us to communicate between parent class and its associated or dependent classes. There are two important concepts in observer pattern ‘Subject’ and ‘Observers’. The subject sends notifications while observers receive notifications if they are registered with the subject. Below figure ‘Subject and observers’ shows how the application (subject) sends notification to all observers (email, event log and SMS). You can map this example to publisher and subscriber model. The publisher is the application and subscribers are email, event log and sms.



Figure: - Subject and Observers


Let’s try to code the same example which we have defined in the previous section. First let’s have a look at the subscribers / notification classes. Figure ‘Subscriber classes’ shows the same in a pictorial format. So we have a common interface for all subscribers i.e. ‘INotification’ which has a ‘notify’ method. This interface ‘INotification’ is implemented by all concrete notification classes. All concrete notification classes define their own notification methodology. For the current scenario we have just displayed a print saying the particular notification is executed.

 

 

Figure: - Subscriber classes


As said previously there are two sections in an observer pattern one is the observer/subscriber which we have covered in the previous section and second is the publisher or the subject.

The publisher has a collection of arraylist which will have all subscribers added who are interested in receiving the notifications. Using ‘addNotification’ and ‘removeNotification’ we can add and remove the subscribers from the arraylist. ‘NotifyAll’ method loops through all the subscribers and send the notification.

 

 

 

 

Figure: - Publisher/Subject classes

 



Now that we have an idea about the publisher and subscriber classes lets code the client and see observer in action. Below is a code for observer client snippet. So first we create the object of the notifier which has collection of subscriber objects. We add all the subscribers who are needed to be notified in the collection.
Now if the customer code length is above 10 characters then tell notify all the subscribers about the same.

 

 

 

 

Figure: - Observer client code


Note :- You can get the C# code snippet for observer pattern from the CD in ‘Observer’ folder.

 

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.NET interview questions: - Can you explain Forms authentication in detail?

What is the difference between VAR and Dynamic keyword? ( .NET Interview questions with answers)

.NET interview questions: - What are similarities and difference between Class and structure?

Can you compare String.IsNullOrEmpty vs String.IsNullOrWhiteSpace ? ( .Net Interview questions with answers)

.NET interview questions: - Distinguish between Reflection and Dynamic?

.NET interview questions: - In which scenarios we can use serialization and when to use what binary serialization or XML serialization?

.NET interview questions: - Are there any readymade objects in .NET by which we can implement Lazy loading?

.NET interview questions: - What are different access modifiers?

ADO.NET interview questions: - Explain in detail the fundamental of connection pooling how to enable and disable connection pooling?

ADO.NET interview questions: - What is the namespace in which .NET has the data functionality class?

ADO.NET interview questions: - What are the different components in ADO.NET?

ADO.NET interview questions: - Show difference between “Optimistic” and “Pessimistic” locking and how many ways are there to implement optimistic locking in ADO.NET?

.NET interview questions: - Does code contract only do dynamic checks?

ADO.NET interview questions: - How can we fire a simple SQL Statement using ADO.NET?

.NET interview questions: - What basic steps are needed to display a simple report in crystal?

ADO.NET interview questions: - What are basic methods of Data adapter and mention the use of data adapter?

.NET interview questions: - What is UML? How many types of diagrams are there in UML?

.Net Interview Questions - What is MVC, MVP and MVVM pattern?

.NET interview questions: - How can you define a property read only for external world and writable in the same assembly?

Explain the implicit and explicit conversion of data types with examples?( .NET interview questions on data type)

.NET interview questions: - What is Reflection its implementation and practical uses?

What is downcasting and upcasting? (.NET interview questions with answers)

.NET interview questions: - How to decide on the design consideration to take a Data grid, data list or repeater?

.NET interview questions: - If we want to update interface with new methods, what is the best practice?

.NET interview questions: - How does selection sort algorithm works?

XML(.NET) interview questions: - What is XML?

.NET Interview questions: - If a validation is very complex what will you do?

.NET interview questions: - How can we stop the class from further inheriting?

XML (.NET) Interview questions :- Explain simple Walk through of XmlReader.

.NET interview questions : - How can we improve performance of .NET and show the difference between .NET 1.X, 2.0, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0?

How to convert string to ENUM value ?( .NET interview questions with answers)

.NET architecture interview questions series: - What is mean by modeling language?

.NET architecture interview questions : - What are benefits and Limitation of using Viewstate, hidden frames and Cookies?

.NET interview questions: - What is GAC (Global Assembly Cache)?

.NET interview questions: - Explain Nuget?

.NET Testing interview questions: - What is the difference between Unit testing, Assembly testing and Regression testing?


.NET interview questions: - What is Code Access Security (CAS) and how does it work? Is CAS supported in .NET 4.0?


.NET interview questions: - What are the advantages /disadvantages of lazy loading?


.NET interview questions: - What is the use of DEBUG directive?


.NET testing interview questions: - What is Mock testing and how to implement it?


.NET interview questions: - What is the difference between DEBUG and Release?


.NET testing interview questions: - How can we UNIT test private methods using VSTS? Is it good to practice to UNIT test Private methods?


Explain 3 layer architecture ( .NET Interview questions)?


.NET interview questions : - What is a delegate and how can we create a delegate? What is a multicast delegate?


ADO.NET interview questions: - How to add/remove row is in “Data Table” object of “Dataset”? How to load multiple tables in a Dataset & adding relation between tables in a Dataset?


What is the difference between Array, ArrayList and List?( .Net Interview questions)

.NET interview questions: - How to implement DTC in .NET?
.NET interview questions: - What is an Interface and what are abstract classes

.NET interview questions: - Interface vs. abstract class

.NET interview questions: - How to implement practically Lazy loading in .NET?


.NET interview questions: - How can we handle exceptions in .NET? What if we do not catch the exception?

.NET interview questions based on Projects.


.NET interview questions: - What is shadowing? What is the difference between Shadowing and Overriding?

.NET interview questions: - All about Design Patterns in .NET


.NET interview questions: - How can we improve performance of .NET/ASP.NET/SQL Server?

.NET interview questions: - What benefits does sealed keyword provide?


.NET Architecture UML interview question


.NET interview questions: - How to maintain performance and can clean unmanaged objects?


.NET interview questions: - Explain ENUM and its benefits? What is the use of Flagsin ENUM?

.NET interview questions: - How to create a windows service using .NET?

.NET interview questions: - Explain in details about Indexer and can we have static indexer in C#?

.NET interview questions: - What is the difference between arraylist and list? Are Arraylist faster or Arrays?

.NET interview questions: - What is Native Image Generator (Ngen.exe)? Does NGEN.EXE always improve performance?

.NET OOPS interview questions: - What is OOP? What are different properties provided by Object-oriented systems?

.NET OOPS interview questions: - How abstract with only abstract method is it different from interfaces? Also mention best practice to update interface with new methods?

.NET interview questions: - What is the difference between delegate and events? Can we have return type, access modifiers and shared events?

.NET interview questions: - What is Manifest? Where is the version information stored of an assembly? Is versioning applicable to private assemblies?

.NET Generics interview questions: - Explain Generics and concept of Generic Collection in .NET?

How to learn .NET: - In parent-child relationship which constructor will fire first and in which instances you will declare a constructor private?

Basics of .NET and learning tutorials on CTS and CLS


Online resource to learn .NET on Reflection and Dynamic

Online guide to learn .NET for Object initializer in C#?

QuestPond for Freshers on IL code, JIT, CLR, CTS, CLS and CAS

QuestPond: Interview Questions and Answers on AJAX and how does it help?



ASP.NET Interview Questions & Answers Article










MVC Interview Questions And Answers Article

 

(MODEL VIEW CONTROLLER)MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VIDEO: – WHAT IS WEB API HOW TO IMPLEMENT THE SAME?

 

ASP.NET MVC  4 INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS: - WHAT IS BUNDLING AND MINIFICATION IN MODEL VIEW CONTROLLER ?

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS :- IS IT POSSIBLE TO RETURN VALUES INSTEAD OF ACTIONRESULTS?

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS :- WHAT ARE THE ACTIONRESULTS AVAILABLE IN MVC?

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS:-HTML.PARTIALVSHTML.RENDERPARTIALVSHTML.RENDERPAGE IN MVC

MVC VS ASP.NET ( MVC INTERVIEW QUESTION WITH ANSWERS )?

 

HOW CAN WE DETECT THAT A MVC CONTROLLER IS CALLED BY POST OR GET ? ( ASP.NET MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS)

 

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT WAYS BY WHICH YOU WILL GET FORM DATA IN CONTROLLER? ( MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS)

 

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRESENTER AND CONTROLLER IN MVC?(MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS)

 

LEARN MVC (MODEL VIEW CONTROLLER) STEP BY STEP IN 7 DAYS – DAY 4

 

MVC Interview questions and answers PDF

 

MVC interview questions with answers

 

ActionResult vs. View() vs. ViewResult :- MVC interview questions with answers

Explain Areas in MVC?( MVC interview questions with answers)

 

Can you explain the purpose of ViewModel in MVC?( ASP.NET MVC Interview questions with answers)

ASP.NET MVC interview questions: - What are Filters in MVC?

What are areas in MVC?( MVC Interview questions with answers)

Explain the concept of View Model in MVC? 

Exception Handling in MVC

Explain MVC application life cycle?

100 MVC Interview question PDF download released , Enjoy

How can we use two (multiple) models with a single view?(MVC Interview questions)

MVC HTML.Form vs Ajax.Form – MVC interview questions with answers

Learn Microsoft Business intelligence step by step – Day 1

Can you create TempBag just like ViewBag?( MVC Interview questions)

MVC Unit Testing Unleashed

MVC and .NET learning tutorials for components of MVC and how do you perform unit testing in MVC?

Explain MVC model binders ? ( ASP.NET MVC interview questions)

Explain the difference between layout and master pages ? (MVC Razor interview questions) 


ENTITY FRAMEWORK INTERVIEW QUESTIONS ARTICLE


Windows Workflow Foundation(WWF) interview questions with answers Article

XML Interview Questions With Answers Article


Explain XML,DTD and XSL?(XML interview questions with answers)

HTML 5 Interview questions With Answers Article

HTML 5 interview questions with answers for LocalStorage and SessionStorage

 

How is the page structure of HTML 5 different from HTML 4?( HTML 5 Interview questions with answers)

 

What is datalist in HTML 5 ( ASP.NET HTML interview questions)?

 

What are the different new form element types in HTML 5?( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

 

What is output element in HTML 5?( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

 

What is the difference between Canvas and SVG graphics?(ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

 

ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions on SVG and Canvas

ASP.NET HTML5 interview questions with answers

What are web workers and why do we need them ?( ASP.NET HTML interview questions with answers)

 

Why do we need HTML 5 server-sent events? (ASP.NET HTML interview questions)

How can we add and remove data from local storage?(ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

What is local storage concept in HTML 5? ( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

What is the difference between local storage and cookies? ( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

What is WebSQL?( ASP.Net HTML 5 interview questions)

 

What is session storage and how can you create one?( ASP.Net HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

 

What is application cache in HTML5?( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

ASP.NET HTML 5 Application cache interview questions with answers

 

Explain the term cascading in style sheet ? ( CSS Interview questions)

What is difference between DIV vs SPAN in HTML ?( ASP.Net Interview questions)

HTML 5 Canvas Interview questions: - Canvas in HTML 5.

QuestPond’s interview questions and answers on HTML 5

 

Learn HTML 5 in 3 days – Day 1

 

 

 

Dotnetspider Questions And Answers Article

 

 

What is downcasting and upcasting ? ( .NET interview questions with videos)

 

What is the difference between String vs string? ( C# interview questions) ?

 

 

JAVASCRIPT INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS ARTICLE

 


3 IMPORTANT JAVASCRIPT IMPORTANT INTERVIEW QUESTION WITH ANSWERS