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November 10 2010 4 10 /11 /November /2010 15:21

           

Software Architecture Interview Questions Part 3 State Pattern, Stratergy pattern,Visitor pattern, Adapter and fly weight

Get Interview tutorials and videos on .NET 3.5, 4.0, Architecture, SQL Server, CAS, Security, WCF, SharePoint, Azure, OOPS and many more on www.questpond.com

Introduction

Again i repeat do not think you get an architecture position by reading interview questions. But yes there should be some kind of reference which will help you quickly revise what are the definition. Just by reading these answers you get to a position where you are aware of the fundamentals. But if you have not really worked you will surely fail with scenario based questions. So use this as a quick revision rather than a shot cut.

To give you a practical understanding i have put all these design patterns in a video format and uploaded on http://www.questpond.com/FreeDesign1.htm . You can visit http://www.questpond.com and download the complete architecture interview questions PDF which covers SOA , UML , Design patterns , Togaf , OOPs etc.

 

(I) Can you explain state pattern?


State pattern allows an object to change its behavior depending on the current values of the object. Consider the figure ‘State pattern example’. It’s an example of a bulb operation. If the state of the bulb is off and you press the switch the bulb will turn off. If the state of bulb is on and you press the switch the bulb will be off. So in short depending on the state the behavior changes.

 




Figure: - State pattern example

Now let’s try to implement the same bulb sample in C#. Figure ‘State pattern in action’ shows both the class and the client code. We have made a class called as ‘clsState’ which has an enum with two state constants ‘On’ and ‘Off’. We have defined a method ‘PressSwitch’ which toggles its state depending on the current state. In the right hand side of the same figure we have defined a client which consumes the ‘clsState’ class and calls the ‘PressSwitch()’ method. We have displayed the current status on the textbox using the ‘getStatus’ function.

When we click the press switch it toggles to the opposite state of what we have currently.


Figure: - State pattern in action

 

(I) Can you explain strategy pattern?


Strategy pattern are algorithms inside a class which can be interchanged depending on the class used. This pattern is useful when you want to decide on runtime which algorithm to be used.

Let’s try to see an example of how strategy pattern works practically. Let’s take an example of a math’s calculation where we have strategies like add and substract. Figure ‘Strategy in action’ shows the same in a pictorial format. It takes two numbers and the depending on the strategy it gives out results. So if it’s an addition strategy it will add the numbers, if it’s a substraction strategy it will give the substracted results. These strategies are nothing but algorithms. Strategy pattern are nothing but encapsulation of algorithms inside classes

.



Figure: - Strategy in action


So the first thing we need to look in to is how these algorithms can be encapsulated inside the classes. Below figure ‘Algorithm encapsulated’ shows how the ‘add’ is encapsulated in the ‘clsAddStatergy’ class and ‘substract’ in the ‘clsSubstractStatergy’ class. Both these classes inherit from ‘clsStratergy’ defining a ‘calculate’ method for its child classes.



Figure: - Algorithms encapsulated


Now we define a wrapper class called as ‘clsMaths’ which has a reference to the ‘clsStatergy’ class. This class has a ‘setStatergy’ method which sets the strategy to be used.

 

 

Figure: - Strategy and the wrapper class


Below figure ‘Strategy client code’ shows how the wrapper class is used and the strategy object is set on runtime using the ‘setStatergy’ method.

 

 

 

 

Figure: - Strategy client code

 

(A) Can you explain visitor pattern?


Visitor pattern allows us to change the class structure with out changing the actual class. Its way of separating the logic and algorithm from the current data structure. Due to this you can add new logic to the current data structure with out altering the structure. Second you can alter the structure with out touching the logic.

Consider the below figure ‘Logic and data structure’ where we have a customer data structure. Every customer object has multiple address objects and every address object had multiple phone objects. This data structure needs to be displayed in two different formats one is simple string and second XML. So we have written two classes one is the string logic class and other is the XML logic class. These two classes traverse through the object structure and give the respective outputs. In short the visitor contains the logic.

 

 

 

Figure: - Logic and data structure


Let’s take the above customer sample and try to implement the same in C#. If you are from other programming you should be able to map the same accordingly. We have created two visitor classes one which will be used to parse for the string logic and other for XML. Both these classes have a visit method which takes each object and parses them accordingly. In order to maintain consistency we have implemented them from a common interface ‘IVisitor’.

 

 

 

 

Figure :- Visitor class



The above defined visitor class will be passed to the data structure class i.e. the customer class. So in the customer class we have passed the visitor class in an ‘Accept’ function. In the same function we pass this class type and call the visit function. The visit function is overloaded so it will call according to the class type passed.

 

 

 

 

Figure: - Visitor passed to data structure class

 


Now every customer has multiple address objects and every address has multiple phone objects. So we have ‘objAddresses’ arraylist object aggregated in the ‘clsCustomer’ class and ‘objPhones’ arraylist aggregated in the ‘clsAddress’ class. Every object has the accept method which takes the visitor class and passes himself in the visit function of the visitor class. As the visit function of the visitor class is overloaded it will call the appropriate visitor method as per polymorphism.

 

 

 

 

Figure: - Customer, Address and phones


Now that we have the logic in the visitor classes and data structure in the customer classes its
time to use the same in the client. Below figure ‘Visitor client code’ shows a sample code snippet for using the visitor pattern. So we create the visitor object and pass it to the customer data class. If we want to display the customer object structure in a string format we create the ‘clsVisitorString’ and if we want to generate in XML format we create the ‘clsXML’ object and pass the same to the customer object data structure. You can easily see how the logic is now separated from the data structure.

 

 

 

 

Figure: - Visitor client code


Note: - You can find a sample of the same in C# in the visitor folder of the CD. If you belong to some other programming domain you can map the same as the code is very generic.


(A) What the difference between visitor and strategy pattern?


Visitor and strategy look very much similar as they deal with encapsulating complex logic from data. We can say visitor is more general form of strategy.
In strategy we have one context or a single logical data on which multiple algorithms operate. In the previous questions we have explained the fundamentals of strategy and visitor. So let’s understand the same by using examples which we have understood previously. In strategy we have a single context and multiple algorithms work on it. Figure ‘Strategy’ shows how we have a one data context and multiple algorithm work on it.

 

 

 

 

Figure: - Strategy


In visitor we have multiple contexts and for every context we have an algorithm. If you remember the visitor example we had written parsing logic for every data context i.e. customer, address and phones object.

 

 

 

Figure: - Visitor


So in short strategy is a special kind of visitor. In strategy we have one data context and multiple algorithms while in visitor for every data context we have one algorithm associated. The basic criteria of choosing whether to implement strategy or visitor depends on the relationship between context and algorithm. If there is one context and multiple algorithms then we go for strategy. If we have multiple contexts and multiple algorithms then we implement visitor algorithm.

 

(A) Can you explain adapter pattern?


Many times two classes are incompatible because of incompatible interfaces. Adapter helps us to wrap a class around the existing class and make the classes compatible with each other. Consider the below figure ‘Incompatible interfaces’ both of them are collections to hold string values. Both of them have a method which helps us to add string in to the collection. One of the methods is named as ‘Add’ and the other as ‘Push’. One of them uses the collection object and the other the stack. We want to make the stack object compatible with the collection object.

 

 

 

 

Figure: - Incompatible interfaces


There are two way of implementing adapter pattern one is by using aggregation (this is termed as the object adapter pattern) and the other inheritance (this is termed as the class adapter pattern). First let’s try to cover object adapter pattern.

Figure ‘Object Adapter pattern’ shows a broader view of how we can achieve the same. We have a introduced a new wrapper class ‘clsCollectionAdapter’ which wraps on the top of the ‘clsStack’ class and aggregates the ‘push’ method inside a new ‘Add’ method, thus making both the classes compatible.

 

 

 

 

Figure: - Object Adapter pattern


 The other way to implement the adapter pattern is by using inheritance also termed as class adapter pattern. Figure ‘Class adapter pattern’ shows how we have inherited the ‘clsStack’ class in the ‘clsCollectionAdapter’ and made it compatible with the ‘clsCollection’ class.

 

 

 

 

Figure :- Class adapter pattern


Note :- You can the above C# example in the adapter folder of the CD.

 


(I) What is fly weight pattern?


Fly weight pattern is useful where we need to create many objects and all these objects share some kind of common data. Consider figure ‘Objects and common data’. We need to print visiting card for all employees in the organization. So we have two parts of data one is the variable data i.e. the employee name and the other is static data i.e. address. We can minimize memory by just keeping one copy of the static data and referencing the same data in all objects of variable data. So we create different copies of variable data, but reference the same copy of static data. With this we can optimally use the memory.

 

 

 

 

Figure: - Objects and common data


Below is a sample C# code demonstration of how flyweight can be implemented practically. We have two classes, ‘clsVariableAddress’ which has the variable data and second ‘clsAddress’ which has the static data. To ensure that we have only one instance of ‘clsAddress’ we have made a wrapper class ‘clsStatic’ and created a static instance of the ‘clsAddress’ class. This object is aggregated in the ‘clsVariableAddress’ class.

 

 

 

 

Figure: - Class view of flyweight


Figure ‘Fly weight client code’ shows we have created two objects of ‘clsVariableAddress’ class, but internally the static data i.e. the address is referred to only one instance.

 

 

 

 

Figure: - Fly weight client code

 


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ADO.NET interview questions: - Show difference between “Optimistic” and “Pessimistic” locking and how many ways are there to implement optimistic locking in ADO.NET?

.NET interview questions: - Does code contract only do dynamic checks?

ADO.NET interview questions: - How can we fire a simple SQL Statement using ADO.NET?

.NET interview questions: - What basic steps are needed to display a simple report in crystal?

ADO.NET interview questions: - What are basic methods of Data adapter and mention the use of data adapter?

.NET interview questions: - What is UML? How many types of diagrams are there in UML?

.Net Interview Questions - What is MVC, MVP and MVVM pattern?

.NET interview questions: - How can you define a property read only for external world and writable in the same assembly?

Explain the implicit and explicit conversion of data types with examples?( .NET interview questions on data type)

.NET interview questions: - What is Reflection its implementation and practical uses?

What is downcasting and upcasting? (.NET interview questions with answers)

.NET interview questions: - How to decide on the design consideration to take a Data grid, data list or repeater?

.NET interview questions: - If we want to update interface with new methods, what is the best practice?

.NET interview questions: - How does selection sort algorithm works?

XML(.NET) interview questions: - What is XML?

.NET Interview questions: - If a validation is very complex what will you do?

.NET interview questions: - How can we stop the class from further inheriting?

XML (.NET) Interview questions :- Explain simple Walk through of XmlReader.

.NET interview questions : - How can we improve performance of .NET and show the difference between .NET 1.X, 2.0, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0?

How to convert string to ENUM value ?( .NET interview questions with answers)

.NET architecture interview questions series: - What is mean by modeling language?

.NET architecture interview questions : - What are benefits and Limitation of using Viewstate, hidden frames and Cookies?

.NET interview questions: - What is GAC (Global Assembly Cache)?

.NET interview questions: - Explain Nuget?

.NET Testing interview questions: - What is the difference between Unit testing, Assembly testing and Regression testing?


.NET interview questions: - What is Code Access Security (CAS) and how does it work? Is CAS supported in .NET 4.0?


.NET interview questions: - What are the advantages /disadvantages of lazy loading?


.NET interview questions: - What is the use of DEBUG directive?


.NET testing interview questions: - What is Mock testing and how to implement it?


.NET interview questions: - What is the difference between DEBUG and Release?


.NET testing interview questions: - How can we UNIT test private methods using VSTS? Is it good to practice to UNIT test Private methods?


Explain 3 layer architecture ( .NET Interview questions)?


.NET interview questions : - What is a delegate and how can we create a delegate? What is a multicast delegate?


ADO.NET interview questions: - How to add/remove row is in “Data Table” object of “Dataset”? How to load multiple tables in a Dataset & adding relation between tables in a Dataset?


What is the difference between Array, ArrayList and List?( .Net Interview questions)

.NET interview questions: - How to implement DTC in .NET?
.NET interview questions: - What is an Interface and what are abstract classes

.NET interview questions: - Interface vs. abstract class

.NET interview questions: - How to implement practically Lazy loading in .NET?


.NET interview questions: - How can we handle exceptions in .NET? What if we do not catch the exception?

.NET interview questions based on Projects.


.NET interview questions: - What is shadowing? What is the difference between Shadowing and Overriding?

.NET interview questions: - All about Design Patterns in .NET


.NET interview questions: - How can we improve performance of .NET/ASP.NET/SQL Server?

.NET interview questions: - What benefits does sealed keyword provide?


.NET Architecture UML interview question


.NET interview questions: - How to maintain performance and can clean unmanaged objects?


.NET interview questions: - Explain ENUM and its benefits? What is the use of Flagsin ENUM?

.NET interview questions: - How to create a windows service using .NET?

.NET interview questions: - Explain in details about Indexer and can we have static indexer in C#?

.NET interview questions: - What is the difference between arraylist and list? Are Arraylist faster or Arrays?

.NET interview questions: - What is Native Image Generator (Ngen.exe)? Does NGEN.EXE always improve performance?

.NET OOPS interview questions: - What is OOP? What are different properties provided by Object-oriented systems?

.NET OOPS interview questions: - How abstract with only abstract method is it different from interfaces? Also mention best practice to update interface with new methods?

.NET interview questions: - What is the difference between delegate and events? Can we have return type, access modifiers and shared events?

.NET interview questions: - What is Manifest? Where is the version information stored of an assembly? Is versioning applicable to private assemblies?

.NET Generics interview questions: - Explain Generics and concept of Generic Collection in .NET?

How to learn .NET: - In parent-child relationship which constructor will fire first and in which instances you will declare a constructor private?

Basics of .NET and learning tutorials on CTS and CLS


Online resource to learn .NET on Reflection and Dynamic

Online guide to learn .NET for Object initializer in C#?

QuestPond for Freshers on IL code, JIT, CLR, CTS, CLS and CAS

QuestPond: Interview Questions and Answers on AJAX and how does it help?



ASP.NET Interview Questions & Answers Article










MVC Interview Questions And Answers Article

 

(MODEL VIEW CONTROLLER)MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VIDEO: – WHAT IS WEB API HOW TO IMPLEMENT THE SAME?

 

ASP.NET MVC  4 INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS: - WHAT IS BUNDLING AND MINIFICATION IN MODEL VIEW CONTROLLER ?

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS :- IS IT POSSIBLE TO RETURN VALUES INSTEAD OF ACTIONRESULTS?

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS :- WHAT ARE THE ACTIONRESULTS AVAILABLE IN MVC?

 

MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS:-HTML.PARTIALVSHTML.RENDERPARTIALVSHTML.RENDERPAGE IN MVC

MVC VS ASP.NET ( MVC INTERVIEW QUESTION WITH ANSWERS )?

 

HOW CAN WE DETECT THAT A MVC CONTROLLER IS CALLED BY POST OR GET ? ( ASP.NET MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS)

 

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT WAYS BY WHICH YOU WILL GET FORM DATA IN CONTROLLER? ( MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS)

 

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRESENTER AND CONTROLLER IN MVC?(MVC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS)

 

LEARN MVC (MODEL VIEW CONTROLLER) STEP BY STEP IN 7 DAYS – DAY 4

 

MVC Interview questions and answers PDF

 

MVC interview questions with answers

 

ActionResult vs. View() vs. ViewResult :- MVC interview questions with answers

Explain Areas in MVC?( MVC interview questions with answers)

 

Can you explain the purpose of ViewModel in MVC?( ASP.NET MVC Interview questions with answers)

ASP.NET MVC interview questions: - What are Filters in MVC?

What are areas in MVC?( MVC Interview questions with answers)

Explain the concept of View Model in MVC? 

Exception Handling in MVC

Explain MVC application life cycle?

100 MVC Interview question PDF download released , Enjoy

How can we use two (multiple) models with a single view?(MVC Interview questions)

MVC HTML.Form vs Ajax.Form – MVC interview questions with answers

Learn Microsoft Business intelligence step by step – Day 1

Can you create TempBag just like ViewBag?( MVC Interview questions)

MVC Unit Testing Unleashed

MVC and .NET learning tutorials for components of MVC and how do you perform unit testing in MVC?

Explain MVC model binders ? ( ASP.NET MVC interview questions)

Explain the difference between layout and master pages ? (MVC Razor interview questions) 


ENTITY FRAMEWORK INTERVIEW QUESTIONS ARTICLE


Windows Workflow Foundation(WWF) interview questions with answers Article

XML Interview Questions With Answers Article


Explain XML,DTD and XSL?(XML interview questions with answers)

HTML 5 Interview questions With Answers Article

HTML 5 interview questions with answers for LocalStorage and SessionStorage

 

How is the page structure of HTML 5 different from HTML 4?( HTML 5 Interview questions with answers)

 

What is datalist in HTML 5 ( ASP.NET HTML interview questions)?

 

What are the different new form element types in HTML 5?( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

 

What is output element in HTML 5?( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

 

What is the difference between Canvas and SVG graphics?(ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

 

ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions on SVG and Canvas

ASP.NET HTML5 interview questions with answers

What are web workers and why do we need them ?( ASP.NET HTML interview questions with answers)

 

Why do we need HTML 5 server-sent events? (ASP.NET HTML interview questions)

How can we add and remove data from local storage?(ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

What is local storage concept in HTML 5? ( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

What is the difference between local storage and cookies? ( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions)

What is WebSQL?( ASP.Net HTML 5 interview questions)

 

What is session storage and how can you create one?( ASP.Net HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

 

What is application cache in HTML5?( ASP.NET HTML 5 interview questions with answers)

ASP.NET HTML 5 Application cache interview questions with answers

 

Explain the term cascading in style sheet ? ( CSS Interview questions)

What is difference between DIV vs SPAN in HTML ?( ASP.Net Interview questions)

HTML 5 Canvas Interview questions: - Canvas in HTML 5.

QuestPond’s interview questions and answers on HTML 5

 

Learn HTML 5 in 3 days – Day 1

 

 

 

Dotnetspider Questions And Answers Article

 

 

What is downcasting and upcasting ? ( .NET interview questions with videos)

 

What is the difference between String vs string? ( C# interview questions) ?

 

 

JAVASCRIPT INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS ARTICLE

 


3 IMPORTANT JAVASCRIPT IMPORTANT INTERVIEW QUESTION WITH ANSWERS